Flight motor modulation with speed in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

@article{Hedrick2017FlightMM,
  title={Flight motor modulation with speed in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.},
  author={Tyson L. Hedrick and Jorge Mart{\'i}nez-Blat and Mariah J Goodman},
  journal={Journal of insect physiology},
  year={2017},
  volume={96},
  pages={115-121}
}
The theoretical underpinnings for flight, including animal flight with flapping wings, predict a curvilinear U-shaped or J-shaped relationship between flight speed and the power required to maintain that speed. Experimental data have confirmed this relationship for a variety of bird and bat species but not insects, possibly due to differences in aerodynamics and physiology or experimental difficulties. Here we quantify modulation of the main flight motor muscles (the dorsolongitudinal and… CONTINUE READING