Flexible Electronic Skin: From Humanoids to Humans

  title={Flexible Electronic Skin: From Humanoids to Humans},
  author={Ravinder S. Dahiya and Deji Akinwande and Joseph Sylvester Chang},
  journal={Proc. IEEE},
This special issue provides state-of-the-art coverage of the theoretical, scientific, and practical aspects related to flexible electronic skin. 
Touch Interactive 3D Surfaces
  • Adamos Christou, R. Dahiya
  • Engineering
    2020 IEEE International Conference on Flexible and Printable Sensors and Systems (FLEPS)
  • 2020
This paper presents the design and implementation of a touch interactive 3D surface using frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR). Using a simple and scalable approach, the touch sensing is
Cu–EGaIn enabled stretchable e-skin for interactive electronics and CT assistant localization
A simple, fast fabrication method for highly conductive and stretchable e-skin based on the adhesion selectivity of a semi-liquid metal (Cu–EGaIn) on laser printed toner and a polymethacrylate (PMA) coating is developed, which holds promise for future health care, surgical guidance and personalized entertainment.
Soft eSkin: distributed touch sensing with harmonized energy and computing
  • M. Soni, R. Dahiya
  • Computer Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A
  • 2019
These advanced features in eSkin, particularly the distributed sensing harmoniously integrated with energy harvesters, storage devices and distributed computing to read and locally process the tactile sensory data are discussed.
Tacsac: A Wearable Haptic Device with Capacitive Touch-Sensing Capability for Tactile Display
This paper presents a dual-function wearable device (Tacsac) with capacitive tactile sensing and integrated tactile feedback capability to enable communication among deafblind people and advances existing tactile displays by providing efficient two-way communication through the use of a single device for both localized haptic feedback and touch-sensing.
Energy Generating Electronic Skin With Intrinsic Tactile Sensing Without Touch Sensors
The novel paradigm presented in this article for the development of a flexible eSkin extends the application of solar cell from energy generation alone to simultaneously acting as touch sensors.
Electronic Skin with Energy Autonomous Proximity Sensing for Human-Robot Interaction
The eSkin contains an array of miniaturized solar cells to generate energy needed for infrared LEDs based proximity sensors and has been integrated in an industrial robot arm UR5 and proximity sensing has been shown to enable safe Human-Robot Interaction (HRI).
3D Printed Robotic Hand with Embedded Touch Sensors
The proof-of-concept robot hand developed here shows that the concept could be applied to develop the 3D printed embedded sensorised systems or instrumented objects needed for applications such as internet of things and human-computer interaction.
Smart Tactile Gloves for Haptic Interaction, Communication, and Rehabilitation
The huge potential the smart‐glove‐type solutions hold for advances in various application areas such as robotics, health care, sensorial augmentation for nondisabled and tactile Internet is also discussed.


E-Skin: From Humanoids to Humans
It is critical for the safe robotic interaction—albeit as a coworker in the futuristic industry 4.0 setting or to assist the elderly at home.
Large-Area Soft e-Skin: The Challenges Beyond Sensor Designs
New developments related to the handling of tactile data, energy autonomy, and large-area manufacturing related to tactile sensing and haptics in robotics and prosthetics are reviewed.
A skin-inspired organic digital mechanoreceptor
This work presents a power-efficient skin-inspired mechanoreceptor with a flexible organic transistor circuit that transduces pressure into digital frequency signals directly, and represents a step toward the design and use of large-area organic electronic skins with neural-integrated touch feedback for replacement limbs.
Tactile Sensing—From Humans to Humanoids
Tactile sensing, focused to fingertips and hands until past decade or so, has now been extended to whole body, even though many issues remain open, and various system issues that keep tactile sensing away from widespread utility are discussed.
New materials and advances in making electronic skin for interactive robots
This review provides insight into various materials that have been used in the development of flexible electronics primarily for e-skin applications.
Organic Photovoltaics: Toward Self-Powered Wearable Electronics
Recent developments in flexible OPVs are discussed, including advances in materials, structure, and integration with additional wearable components, such as sensors and displays, and a self-powered actuator for a tactile feedback system is described.
Energy autonomous electronic skin
The paper highlights the key challenges, critical design strategies, and most promising materials for the development of an energy-autonomous e-skin for robotics, prosthetics and wearable systems.
Fingerprint‐Enhanced Capacitive‐Piezoelectric Flexible Sensing Skin to Discriminate Static and Dynamic Tactile Stimuli
With the capability of performing a real‐time binary naturalistic texture classification with a maximum accuracy of 99.45%, the presented bioinspired skin finds applications in robotics, prosthesis, wearable sensors, and medical devices.
Flexible Ultralow-Power Sensor Interfaces for E-Skin
This review will present the state of the art in thin-film electronics and demonstrate examples of low-cost printable transistors and biosensors that are flexible/stretchable for wearable and other applications and a concept for an integrated system comprising sensors and interfacing circuits that has the potential to enable batteryless operation.
Robotic Tactile Sensing: Technologies and System
This book presents an in-depth description of the solutions available for gathering tactile data, obtaining aforementioned tactile information from the data and effectively using the same in various robotic tasks, and presents the trade-offs one may face while developing an effective tactile sensing system.