Flexibility in starting posture drives flexibility in kinematic behavior of the kinethmoid-mediated premaxillary protrusion mechanism in a cyprinid fish, Cyprinus carpio.

@article{Gidmark2012FlexibilityIS,
  title={Flexibility in starting posture drives flexibility in kinematic behavior of the kinethmoid-mediated premaxillary protrusion mechanism in a cyprinid fish, Cyprinus carpio.},
  author={Nicholas J Gidmark and Katie Lynn Staab and Elizabeth L Brainerd and Luz Patricia Hernandez},
  journal={The Journal of experimental biology},
  year={2012},
  volume={215 Pt 13},
  pages={2262-72}
}
Premaxillary protrusion in cypriniform fishes involves rotation of the kinethmoid, an unpaired skeletal element in the dorsal midline of the rostrum. No muscles insert directly onto the kinethmoid, so its rotation must be caused by the movement of other bones. In turn, the kinethmoid is thought to push on the ascending processes of the premaxillae, effecting protrusion. To determine the causes and effects of kinethmoid motion, we used XROMM (x-ray reconstruction of moving morphology) to measure… CONTINUE READING

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