# Fletcher's error detection algorithm: how to implement it efficiently and how toavoid the most common pitfalls

@article{Nakassis1988FletchersED, title={Fletcher's error detection algorithm: how to implement it efficiently and how toavoid the most common pitfalls}, author={Anastase Nakassis}, journal={Comput. Commun. Rev.}, year={1988}, volume={18}, pages={63-88} }

In what follows we pursue the following objectives:(a) to present efficient versions of Fletcher's Arithmetic Checksum Algorithm,(b) to discuss the issues that arise when these versions are implemented,(c) to present possible implementation independent shortcomings of the algorithm, and(d) to contrast its properties to those of a CRC encoding scheme.

## 30 Citations

### f Error Detectio odes

- Computer Science
- 1995

Techniques for, and measure the performance of, fast software implementation of the CRC, WSC, one's- complement checksum, Fletcher Checksum, CXOR cheeks-, and block parity code are discussed.

### Fast software implementation of error detection codes

- Computer ScienceTNET
- 1995

Techniques for, and measure the performance of, fast software implementation of the cyclic redundancy check (CRC), weighted sum codes (WSC), one's-complement checksum, Fletcher (1982) Checksum, CXOR checksum and block parity code are discussed.

### Revisiting Fletcher and

- Computer Science
- 2006

This study studies the error detection effectiveness of the Fletcher and Adler checksums for random independent bit errors and burst errors and reveals that in most cases the Fletcher checksum should be used instead of the Adler Checksum.

### Cyclic Properties and Pipeline Implementation of the Fletcher Checksum

- Computer ScienceIEEE Transactions on Communications
- 2021

This paper shows that the Fletcher checksum is a cyclic code by introducing acyclic code known as the cyclic Fletcher code (CFC) and then showing that the CFC is equivalent to the FC.

### Double and triple error detecting capability of Internet checksum and estimation of probability of undetectable error

- Computer ScienceProceedings Pacific Rim International Symposium on Fault-Tolerant Systems
- 1997

This manuscript formulate the checksum procedure as a nonlinear code, and derived lower and upper bounds on the probability of an undetectable error when the non linear code is used for error detection on a binary symmetric channel.

### Improving the efficiency of the OSI checksum calculation

- Computer ScienceCCRV
- 1989

Two different ways to use larger byte--sizes to improve the performance of the OSI checksum are proposed and some taken of checksums in common use, such as IP and XNS† are compared.

### Performance of checksums and CRC's over real data

- Computer Science, MathematicsTNET
- 1998

This paper examines the behavior of checksums and CRCs over real data from various UNIXr file systems and shows that, when given real data in small to modest pieces, all the checksum algorithms have skewed distributions.

### The Effectiveness of Checksums for Embedded Networks

- Computer Science
- 2006

A study of error detection capabilities for random independent bit errors and burst errors reveals that XOR, two’s complement addition, and Adler checksums are suboptimal for typical application use.

### Performance of checksums and CRC's over real data

- Computer Science
- 1995

This paper examines the behavior of checksums and CRCs over time under the assumption that the data fed to the algorithms was entirely random.

### Revisiting Fletcher and Adler Checksums

- Computer Science
- 2006

This study studies the error detection effectiveness of the Fletcher and Adler checksums for random independent bit errors and burst errors and reveals that in most cases the Fletcher checksum should be used instead of the Adler Checksum.

## References

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### An Arithmetic Checksum for Serial Transmissions

- Computer ScienceIEEE Trans. Commun.
- 1982

An error-detection method for serial transmissions is presented that uses an integer arithmetic checksum that is a bit weaker at detection but is more efficient, thus representing a different and potentially useful choice in rhobust-benefit spectrum.

### Notice though, that for the purposes of this algorithm, it is expedient to have many short vector registers rather than a few long ones

- Notice though, that for the purposes of this algorithm, it is expedient to have many short vector registers rather than a few long ones

### 2) one addition to find the c0-contribution of our registers , (3) To add this value as is to the c0 counter and multiplied by KxM to the the cl register

- ) one fetch to load the registers4) To conduct (K—1) mask and (K—1) sum operations on the vector registers (loop (6)) . (5) To perform three parameter initializations

### To execute log_base_2(M) times a loop containing additions of vector register ranges , rotations of vector register ranges and parameter adjustments . (7) A vector addition

- To execute log_base_2(M) times a loop containing additions of vector register ranges , rotations of vector register ranges and parameter adjustments . (7) A vector addition