Flatness of the setting Sun

@article{Nda2003FlatnessOT,
  title={Flatness of the setting Sun},
  author={Zolt{\'a}n N{\'e}da and S. Volk{\'a}n},
  journal={American Journal of Physics},
  year={2003},
  volume={71},
  pages={379-385}
}
The flattened rim of the setting or rising Sun is a consequence of atmospheric refraction. We study the flatness as a function of the Sun’s inclination angle, the observation height, and the meteorological conditions characterized by pressure, temperature, and lapse rate using a standard model of the atmosphere. Numerical calculations are compared with simple observations. Extreme and unusual situations are revealed. 

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