Flashbulb memories are special after all; in phenomenology, not accuracy

  title={Flashbulb memories are special after all; in phenomenology, not accuracy},
  author={Jennifer M Talarico and David C. Rubin},
  journal={Applied Cognitive Psychology},
Consistency of flashbulb memories (FBMs) of the 11th September terrorist attacks and of everyday memories (EDMs) of the preceding weekend do not differ, in both cases declining over the following year for a group of Duke University undergraduates. However, ratings of recollection, vividness and other phenomenological properties were consistently higher for FBMs than for EDMs across time. Belief in the accuracy of memory was initially high for both memories, but declined over time only for EDMs… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Effects of age on phenomenology and consistency of flashbulb memories of September 11 and a staged control event.
In two studies, the special status of flashbulb memories was investigated by contrasting the effects of age on the phenomenology and consistency of flashbulb memories of September 11, over a 2-year
Flashbulb memories: Sorry, no Flash!
Ordinary memory processes shape Flashbulb memories of extraordinary events
Brown and Kulik coined the term. We evaluate evidence for veridical, phenomenological, and metacognitive features that have been proposed to differentiate Flashbulb from ordinary autobiographical
Do automatic mental associations detect a flashbulb memory?
Jointly considered, the results from the two studies showed that the implicit measures were able to discriminate a FBM, and appeared significantly associated with explicit traditional measures of FBM Specificity, Confidence, and Consistency.
Flashbulb memories: Special but not iconic
Flashbulb Memories for the September 11 th Terrorist Attacks : Long-Term Retention , Confidence , and the Influence of Rehearsal and Emotion
sammanfattning Flashbulb memories are memories for circumstances in which one first learned of a surprising, consequential, and emotional event. Classic flashbulb memory research suggests that this
Observer memories may not be for everyone
It is shown that, while there are some people who report to regularly have observer memories, there are also those that report to rarely or never have them, and this difference in the experience of observer memories may also reflect other innate characteristics, and may correspond to predispositions for various pathologies.
A review of 40 years of research
We review the shifting definition of "Flashbulb memory" in the 40 years since Brown and Kulik coined the term. We evaluate evidence for veridical, phenomenological, and metacognitive features that


Confidence, Not Consistency, Characterizes Flashbulb Memories
Initial visceral emotion ratings correlated with later belief in accuracy, but not consistency, for flashbulb memories, and predicted later posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.
Autobiographical memories for the September 11th attacks: Reconstructive errors and emotional impairment of memory
College students were asked about their personal memories from 9/11 and reconstructive processes in the memory for a highly consequential and emotional event and emotional impairment of memory processing of incidental details were demonstrated.
Recall of the Hillsborough disaster over time: Systematic biases of ‘flashbulb’ memories
The class of memories, described within the literature as flashbulb memories, are susceptible to the same type of systematic biases as everyday memories. These systematic biases, which are consistent
The formation of flashbulb memories
A causal analysis of secondary variables showed that the formation of FB memories was primarily associated with the level of importance attached to the event and level of affective response to the news.
Personal memories for remote historical events: accuracy and clarity of flashbulb memories related to World War II.
One hundred forty-five Danes between 72 and 89 years of age were asked for their memories of their reception of the news of the Danish occupation (April 1940) and liberation (May 1945) and for their
Belief and recollection of autobiographical memories
It was found that highly relived memories almost always had strong visual images and thatremember/know judgments made on autobiographical memories were more closely related to belief than to recollection.
Memory and Emotional Consistency: The MS Estonia Ferry Disaster
The focus of this study is on the recall of emotional reactions and their consistency in flashbulb memories of the Estonia ferry disaster on the Baltic Sea in September of 1994. Subjects were asked
Flashbulb memories and the underlying mechanisms of their formation: Toward an emotional-integrative model
Investigating the FBMs that Belgian citizens developed upon learning of the unexpected death of their king Baudouin revealed that the third model, which takes into account emotional processes, better explains FBM.
Flashbulb and factual memories: the case of Rabin's assassination
Similarities and differences between factual memories (FTM) and flashbulb memories (FBM) of the assassination of Israel's Prime Minister, Itzhak Rabin, were explored. About two weeks after the
Comparing flashbulb memories of September 11 and the death of Princess Diana: effects of time delays and nationality
This study examines flashbulb memories of a salient recent and a distant public event to assess patterns of forgetting in the formal characteristics of these memories. Memories of a recent event