Flame Retardants in Commercial Use or Development for Textiles

  title={Flame Retardants in Commercial Use or Development for Textiles},
  author={Edward David Weil and Sergei V. Levchik},
  journal={Journal of Fire Sciences},
  pages={243 - 281}
Non-durable and semi-durable flame retardants based mostly on phosphate or phosphonate salts continue to be used on infrequently washed or disposable goods, and recent improvements have been made to impart better `hand' or some limited wash resistance. Backcoating with insoluble ammonium polyphosphate, usually with additives and binders to provide intumescence, has been found effective on charrable fabrics. However, the leading backcoating effective on a wider range of fabrics, including… 
Flame retardant challenges for textiles and fibres: New chemistry versus innovatory solutions
Abstract Almost 50 years ago, the 1950–1960 period witnessed the development of the chemistry underlying most of today’s successful and durable flame retardant treatments for fibres and textiles. In
Bio-Based Flame-Retardant Coatings Based on the Synergistic Combination of Tannic Acid and Phytic Acid for Nylon-Cotton Blends.
Results indicate that flame retardancy is enabled through the enhanced char formation provided by the combination of TA and PA, and the TA-PA system applied to nyco shows great promise as a bio-based FR system.
Hydrophobic and flame-retardant finishing of cotton fabrics for water–oil separation
Fabrics with high flame-retardancy have been extensively applied for numerous applications including textile, garments, automobile industries, pants, shirts, suits bed sheets, and indoor decorations.
Layer-by-Layer Deposition: A Promising Environmentally Benign Flame-Retardant Treatment for Cotton, Polyester, Polyamide and Blended Textiles
A detailed review of recent developments of layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition as a promising approach to reduce flammability of the most widely used fibers (cotton, polyester, polyamide and their
Flame Retardant Finishing for Textiles
State of the art and perspectives on chemicals and techniques which have been developed in textile finishing for conferring flame retardant properties to natural and synthetic fibres are discussed in
Facile two-step phosphazine-based network coating for flame retardant cotton
Abstract There is a need for durable flame retardant treatments for cotton fabric in order to reduce the risk associated with fires. Many current industrial treatments make use of toxic halogenated
Surface Coating for Flame-Retardant Behavior of Cotton Fabric Using a Continuous Layer-by-Layer Process
Cotton’s exceptional softness, breathability, and absorbency have made it America’s best-selling textile fiber; however, cotton textiles are generally more combustible than their synthetic
The Potential for Bio-Sustainable Organobromine-Containing Flame Retardant Formulations for Textile Applications—A Review
The future of sustainable BrFRs should be based on naturally occurring polybrominated structures developed in conjunction with non-toxic, smoke-suppressing synergists such as the zinc stannates or zinc tungstate, which have been carefully tailored for given polymeric and textile substrates.
Phosphorus‐Containing Polymers and Oligomers
Various phosphorus polymers and oligomers, particularly phosphates and phosphonates, are commercially used as flame retardants. Some, such as phosphate oligomers with hydroxyl groups, are
Water-based chitosan/melamine polyphosphate multilayer nanocoating that extinguishes fire on polyester-cotton fabric.
Use of environmentally benign and non-toxic chemicals, and the ease of layer-by-layer deposition, making this coating an industrially feasible alternative to render polyester-cotton fabric self-extinguishing.


The Potential for Volatile Phosphorus-containing Flame Retardants in Textile Back-coatings
A number of volatile phosphorus-containing flame retardant species has been identified as possible replacements for bromine-containing formulations used in textile back-coatings because of the need
Effectiveness of Phosphorus-Containing Flame Retardants in Textile Back-coating Formulations
A series of phosphorus-containing flame retardants including some intumescents have been formulated with selected resins and applied as back-coatings to both cotton and cotton-polyester (35:65)
Flame retardant textile back-coatings. Part 2. Effectiveness of phosphorus-containing flame retardants in textile back-coating formulations
Selected phosphorus-containing flame retardants, including some intumescents, have been formulated with selected resins and applied as back-coatings to both cotton and cotton-polyester (35:65)
A Review of Recent Progress in Phosphorus-based Flame Retardants
Recent patent and technical works indicate a growing interest in halogen-free solutions with the predominance of the literature focusing on phosphorus-based flame retardants. Patents published on the
Durable flame retardant finishing of the nylon/cotton blend fabric using a hydroxyl-functional organophosphorus oligomer
Cotton/nylon blends have been commonly used as the material for protective clothing, but those blend fabrics are not flame retardant finished because of the unavailability of effective flame
Developments in flame retardants for heat and fire resistant textiles—the role of char formation and intumescence
Abstract The currently available heat and flame resistant textiles are reviewed. These fall into two groups, each of which is based on the use of non-thermoplastic fibres as the major fibre
Developments in flame retardant textiles – a review
Abstract The many, and varied flame retardant chemistries researched, and developed during the 1950–1980 period for improving the fire performance of both natural and chemical fibres have not been
Improved Flame Retardant Coatings and Adhesives
ALTHOUGH THE TECHNOLOGY of flame retardant coatings and adhesives has evolved, recent challenges are forcing ever greater changes. Today, environmental concerns dictate that the majority of coatings
Flame Retardants for Textiles
Flame resistance and fire resistance are often used in the same context as the terms flameproof and fireproof. A textile that is flame or fire resistant does not continue to burn or glow after the
A New Chemical Approach to Durable Flame-Retardant Cotton Fabrics1
Recent studies of fire accidents in Switzerland involving individuals' wearing apparel have illustrated the importance of a durable flame-retardant finish for cotton textiles. Knowledge of the