Flagellar rotation and the mechanism of bacterial motility

@article{Silverman1974FlagellarRA,
  title={Flagellar rotation and the mechanism of bacterial motility},
  author={Michael R. Silverman and Melvin I. Simon},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1974},
  volume={249},
  pages={73-74}
}
BACTERIAL flagella are generally composed of three morphologically distinguishable regions: (a) the long flagellar filament which accounts for more than 95% of the flagellar protein; (b) the hook, which is generally 80–90 nm long and has a characteristic shape, and (c) the basal structure which is composed of an intricate set of disks and rods attaching the hook to the cell membrane and cell wall1–3. 
Bacterial Flagella: Flagellar Motor
The bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary molecular motor situated in the cell envelopes of bacteria that is driven by a flow of charged ions across the bacterial plasma membrane. The motor powers
Functional Regulators of Bacterial Flagella.
TLDR
This review describes regulatory proteins that control motility at the level of torque generation in the flagellum that are essential for motility, niche colonization, and pathogenesis.
How bacteria assemble flagella.
  • R. Macnab
  • Biology
    Annual review of microbiology
  • 2003
TLDR
The bacterial flagellum is both a motor organelle and a protein export/assembly apparatus that extends from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior and employs a type III pathway, utilized for secretion of virulence factors.
Functions of the flagellar modes of rotation in bacterial motility and chemotaxis
TLDR
Novel findings with regard to the motor function and bioenergetics are surveyed, and mechanisms are proposed to account for these findings.
The Bacterial Flagellum: Reversible Rotary Propellor and Type III Export Apparatus
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  • Biology, Chemistry
    Journal of bacteriology
  • 1999
Flagella and motility represent two of the richest subjects in microbiology, involving not only bacterial genetics, molecular biology, and physiology but also bioenergetics, hydrodynamics, structural
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Bacterial flagella are locomotive organelles which consist of protein fibers 120 to 180 A in diameter and 15μ in maximum length, extending outward from the cell body. An end of a flagellar fiber is
Flagellar Assembly Mutants in Escherichia coli
TLDR
Genetic and biochemical analysis of mutants defective in the synthesis of flagella in Escherichia coli revealed an unusual class of mutants that were found to produce short, curly, flageella-like filaments with low amplitude, suggested to be "polyhooks", repeated end-to-end polymers of the hook portion of the flagellum.
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TLDR
The same procedure developed for Escherichia coli was also successful for purifying intact flagella from Bacillus subtilis for the purification of intact flagescens free from detectable cell wall, membrane, or cytoplasmic material.
Purification and Thermal Stability of Intact Bacillus subtilis Flagella
TLDR
Flagella were prepared and purified in a relatively intact form from bacterial lysates and found to be more stable to thermal denaturation than flagella filaments obtained by shearing.
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TLDR
Flagella were found to be attached to fragments of cell wall and to cytoplasmic membrane in a similar manner as they are attached to ghosts.
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TLDR
Deoxyribonucleic acid injection by the phage is inhibited by cyanide, suggesting the requirement for cellular energy in the infection process, and the capacity of flagella to function for motility may be lost without the loss of their capacity to adsorb thephage and permit infection.
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TLDR
Although the function—namely translational locomotion—is the same, the biomechanisms by which this end is accomplished may be, in fact, quite distinct in the two forms.
Requirement of Adenosine 3′, 5′-Cyclic Phosphate for Flagella Formation in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium
Adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic phosphate (cyclic AMP) is absolutely required for flagella formation and, hence, motility in cyclic AMP-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.
Bacteria Swim by Rotating their Flagellar Filaments
TLDR
It is shown here that existing evidence favours a model in which each filament rotates, which is commonly believed that each filament propagates a helical wave3.
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