Fixed Green and Brown Color Morphs and a Novel Color‐Changing Morph of the Pacific Tree Frog Hyla regilla

  title={Fixed Green and Brown Color Morphs and a Novel Color‐Changing Morph of the Pacific Tree Frog Hyla regilla},
  author={Wendy H. Wente and John B Phillips},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  pages={461 - 473}
Pacific tree frogs Hyla regilla are typically either green or brown in dorsal coloration. The frequency of green and brown individuals is known to fluctuate seasonally. Previous investigators have generally assumed that the green and brown body colors represent a “fixed” polymorphism and that seasonal changes in the proportion of the two body colors are a consequence of differential survival of the two color morphs. Here we report that, in addition to the “fixed” (i.e., non‐color‐changing… 
Background matching by means of dorsal color change in treefrog populations (Hyla japonica).
  • Noori Choi, Y. Jang
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Ecological genetics and physiology
  • 2014
Testing predictions of the physiological model for color change in treefrogs by investigating dorsal color change under five background colors in three different populations of the treefrog Hyla japonica suggested that chroma change capacity may be sensitive to environmental conditions.
Evidence for coloration plasticity in the yellow‐bellied toad, Bombina variegata
It is found that the brightness contrasts of the cryptic dorsa were significantly lower on the local substrates than substrates of other localities, indicating that the environment mediates an adaptation in cryptic dorsal coloration.
The control of color change in the Pacific tree frog, Hyla regilla
A within-subject, full factorial experiment designed to determine the simple and interactive effects of background, temperature, and light intensity on the rate of color change in the Pacific tree frog found increased rates of hue, chroma, lightness, and color change with increasing initial hue, Chroma,Lightness,and color distances.
Consistent Frequency of Color Morphs in the Sea Star Pisaster ochraceus (Echinodermata:Asteriidae) across Open-Coast Habitats in the Northeastern Pacific1
It is found that the frequency of orange sea stars in a population increases with the size of the animals in most populations, and the most parsimonious explanation is that adult color is a selectively neutral genetic trait that expresses itself ontogenetically.
Microhabitat selection by the Pacific treefrog, Hyla regilla
Cryptic Behavior Is Independent of Dorsal Color Polymorphism in Juvenile Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens)
This study suggests that juvenile Northern Leopard Frogs exhibit a generalized cryptic behavior pattern independent of background body color, which may result in differential substrate preference among color morphs.
Colour and pattern change against visually heterogeneous backgrounds in the tree frog Hyla japonica
This work investigated the colour change process of the Japanese tree frog against patterned backgrounds and elucidated how the expression of dorsal patterns changes against various achromatic/chromatic backgrounds with/without patterns and found substantial individual variation in colour changing ability and the levels of dorsal pattern expression between individuals.
Rapid Body Color Change Provides Lizards with Facultative Crypsis in the Eyes of Their Avian Predators
Color change serves many antipredator functions and may allow animals to better match environments or disrupt outlines to prevent detection. Rapid color change could potentially provide camouflage to
Benthic fish exhibit more plastic crypsis than non-benthic species in a freshwater spring
A subtle, rapid, and reversible crypsis in which small fish exhibit muted changes in brightness to match varying substrates in clear spring water is examined, suggesting that rapid crypticChanges in brightness may augment other forms of defense in small vulnerable fish.
Background matching ability and the maintenance of a colour polymorphism in the red devil cichlid
Testing the ability of differently coloured individuals to phenotypically adjust the shade of their body colour and patterns to match their background found that gold individuals appeared to be more conspicuous, suggesting that a difference in background matching ability could play an important role in the maintenance of colour polymorphisms.


Color and color adaptation of the European tree frog, Hyla arborea
The colors and color adaptation of the European tree frog, Hyla arborea, have been investigated by means of reflectance microspectrophotometry. The results are compared to those previously published
Physiological Color Change in the Green Treefrog: Responses to Background Brightness and Temperature
The results suggest that color change may function both in predator avoidance and in thermoregulation or water balance, and further investigations of color change responses to differently hued backgrounds, of the magnitude and biological significance of color-induced changes in body temperature and rates of evaporative water loss, and ofcolor change in freeranging animals are needed.
The Significance of Color Change in Newly Metamorphosed American Toads (Bufo a. americanus)
Both dark- and light-matched toads preferred the dark background, and toads moved less frequently on the dark Background, and Toads showed no tendency to change color as a function of desiccation or temperature.
This study was initiated in an attempt to obtain estimates of the differential viability observed during the various seasons and to examine critically whether or not changes in frequencies of the several color types could be observed between years.
Microhabitat selection and predation in the Pacific Treefrog, Pseudacris regilla
The results suggest that genetically-determined phenotypic variants can reduce the risk of predation through microhabitat selection, and indicate that visual predators can be important selective agents in the evolution and maintenance of color polymorphisms.
Genetic Changes in a Population of Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) Polymorphic for Color
A 3-year study of color polymorphism in a population of boreal chorus frogs revealed that nearly all characteristics studied con- cerning the composition of the population were similar to those of an
Distribution of and reproductive isolation among color morphs of a rock‐dwelling Lake Victoria cichlid (Haplochromis nyererei)
The data support the hypothesis that polymorphisms can be a step preceding speciation in cichlid fish and suggest the status of color morphs as phenotypes of one species or as separate biological species is a function of environmental conditions that vary considerably between the localities.
Plumage Reflectance and the Objective Assessment of Avian Sexual Dichromatism
This study revealed previously unnoticed sex differences in plumage coloration and the nature of iridescent and noniridescent sex differences, which has important implications for classifications of animals as mono‐ or dimorphic and for taxonomic and conservation purposes.
The Evolution of Threshold Traits in Animals
  • D. Roff
  • Biology
    The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1996
The threshold model of quantitative genetics, in which discrete morphs are determined by some underlying continuously distributed trait and a threshold(s) of expression, is applied appropriately in these cases, shows that no morph has a universally higher fitness, but that there is a tradeoff, with the relative fitnesses of two morphs being contingent upon environmental conditions.
Physiological color change in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.
These results, taken together with the lack of lightening activity of norepinephrine on alpha-MSH-darkened skins, suggest that R. catesbeiana melanophores do not possess very active beta-adrenoceptors and lack alpha-adreneceptors, and that the chromatic rhythm is not endogenous, and most likely is determined by the light/dark cycle effect onalpha- MSH secretion.