Five stages of evolving beta-cell dysfunction during progression to diabetes.

  title={Five stages of evolving beta-cell dysfunction during progression to diabetes.},
  author={Gordon C Weir and Susan Bonner-Weir},
  volume={53 Suppl 3},
This article proposes five stages in the progression of diabetes, each of which is characterized by different changes in beta-cell mass, phenotype, and function. Stage 1 is compensation: insulin secretion increases to maintain normoglycemia in the face of insulin resistance and/or decreasing beta-cell mass. This stage is characterized by maintenance of differentiated function with intact acute glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Stage 2 occurs when glucose levels start to rise… CONTINUE READING
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