Five seconds or sixty? Presentation time in expert memory

@article{Gobet2000FiveSO,
  title={Five seconds or sixty? Presentation time in expert memory},
  author={Fernand R. Gobet and Herbert A. Simon},
  journal={Cogn. Sci.},
  year={2000},
  volume={24},
  pages={651-682}
}
For many years, the game of chess has provided an invaluable task environment for research on cognition, in particular on the differences between novices and experts and the learning that removes these differences, and upon the structure of human memory and its paramaters. The template theory presented by Gobet and Simon based on the EPAM theory offers precise predictions on cognitive processes during the presentation and recall of chess positions. This article describes the behavior of CHREST… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Long-term working memory: A computational implementation for chess expertise
TLDR
Simulations of Saariluoma’s (1989) experiment where both game and random chess positions are presented auditorily make it possible to analyse two key ingredients of the theory: encoding through elaboration of LTM schemas and patterns, and encoding through retrieval structures.
Memory for the Random: A Simulation of Computer Program Recall
TLDR
Results show that a simplified version of CHREST (without the learning and use of highlevel schemata known as templates) broadly captures the skill effect with scrambled programs, but it fails to account for the differences found in humans between different types of randomisation.
Measuring Chess Experts' Single-Use Sequence Knowledge: An Archival Study of Departure from ‘Theoretical’ Openings
TLDR
The results support the hypothesis that monochrestic knowledge is essential for reaching high levels of expertise in chess and provide a direct, quantitative estimate of the number of opening moves that players have to know to reach master level.
The role of constraints in expert memory.
  • F. GobetA. Waters
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2003
TLDR
There was a significant skill effect in a condition in which both the location and distribution of the pieces were randomized, suggesting that process models such as TT can provide a viable account of expert memory in chess.
Computational Modelling of Mental Imagery in Chess: A Sensitivity Analysis
TLDR
The sensitivity analysis presented in the current paper shows that the fit was nearly optimal for all groups of players except the grandmaster group for which, counterintuitively, a slower shifting time gave a better fit.
Mental imagery and chunks: Empirical and computational findings
TLDR
To investigate experts’ imagery in chess, players were required to recall briefly presented positions in which pieces were placed on the intersections between squares (intersection positions), which reinforces the plausibility of CHREST as a model of cognition.
Expert vs. novice differences in the detection of relevant information during a chess game: evidence from eye movements
TLDR
The ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant is explored.
The role of attack and defense semantics in skilled players’ memory for chess positions
TLDR
Findings challenge theories of expertise for chess that assume a primary role for proximity and location in determining which pieces are grouped together in memory.
The Effects of Speed on Skilled Chess Performance
  • B. Burns
  • Psychology
    Psychological science
  • 2004
Two types of mechanisms may underlie chess skill: fast mechanisms, such as recognition, and slow mechanisms, such as search through the space of possible moves and responses. Speed distinguishes
Integration of Perceptual Input and Visual Imagery in Chess Players: Evidence From Eye Movements
This multiple-case study addresses the question of how information from the environment is integrated with mental images. Chess players (N = 4) of different skill levels were submitted to a visual
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 84 REFERENCES
Templates in Chess Memory: A Mechanism for Recalling Several Boards
TLDR
It is suggested that chess players, like experts in other recall tasks, use long-term memory retrieval structures (Chase & Ericsson, 1982) or templates in addition to chunks in short- term memory to store information rapidly.
Memory for the meaningless: How chunks help
TLDR
Simulations show that the CHREST model captures the main features of the human data, thus adding support to the EPAM theory, and corroborate earlier estimates that visual shortterm memory may contain three or four chunks.
Recall of random and distorted chess positions: Implications for the theory of expertise
This paper explores the question, important to the theory of expert performance, of the nature and number of chunks that chess experts hold in memory. It examines how memory contents determine
Recall memory for visually presented chess positions
TLDR
A series of three experiments replicated and extended earlier research reported by Chase and Simon (1973), de Groot (1965), and Charness (1965) and demonstrated that meaningful piece groupings during presentation markedly enhance subsequent recall performance.
Expert memory: a comparison of four theories
Chess players' recall of auditorily presented chess positions
Abstract Chess players' recall of auditorily presented chess positions were studied in three experiments. The results of the first two experiments showed that the skilled chess players are better at
Perception in chess
Recall of rapidly presented random chess positions is a function of skill
TLDR
It is shown that strong players generally maintain some superiority over weak players even with random positions, although the relative difference between skill levels is much smaller than with game positions.
A simulation of memory for chess positions.
The impact of chess research on cognitive science
SummaryAlthough chess research has not been a mainstream activity in cognitive science, it has had a significant impact on this field because of the experimental and theoretical tools it has
...
...