Of Least Concern? Systematics of a cryptic species complex: Limnonectes kuhlii (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae).
- David S McLeod
- Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
Five novel antimicrobial peptides (temporin-LK1, rugosin-LK1, rugosin-LK2, gaegurin-LK1, and gaegurin-LK2) are purified and characterized from Kuhl’s wart frog skin secretions, Limnonectes kuhlii. They share obvious similarity to temporin, rugosin, and gaegurin antimicrobial peptide family, respectively. Their amino acid sequences were determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry, and further confirmed by cDNA cloning. Nine cDNA sequences encoding precursors of these five purified antimicrobial peptides and other four hypothetical antimicrobial peptides were cloned from the skin cDNA library of L. kuhlii. The deduced precursors are composed of a predicted signal peptide, an acidic spacer peptide, and a mature antimicrobial peptide. Most of them showed strong antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The current work identified and characterized three families of antimicrobial peptides from L. kuhlii skins and confirmed that the genus of Limnonectes amphibians share similar antimicrobial peptide families with the genus of Rana amphibians. In addition, a unique antimicrobial peptide (temporin-LK1) with 17 residues including four phenylalanines, which is significantly different from other temporins (16 residues, one or two phenylalanines), was identified in this work. Such unique structure might provide novel template or leading structure to design antimicrobial agents.