Five Tropical Air‐Breathing Fishes, Six Different Strategies to Defend against Ammonia Toxicity on Land*

@article{Ip2004FiveTA,
  title={Five Tropical Air‐Breathing Fishes, Six Different Strategies to Defend against Ammonia Toxicity on Land*},
  author={Yuen Kwong Ip and Shit Fun Chew and David J. Randall},
  journal={Physiological and Biochemical Zoology},
  year={2004},
  volume={77},
  pages={768 - 782}
}
Most tropical fishes are ammonotelic, producing ammonia and excreting it as NH3 by diffusion across the branchial epithelia. Hence, those air‐breathing tropical fishes that survive on land briefly or for an extended period would have difficulties in excreting ammonia when out of water. Ammonia is toxic, but some of these air‐breathing fishes adopt special biochemical adaptations to ameliorate the toxicity of endogenous ammonia accumulating in the body. The amphibious mudskipper Periophthalmodon… Expand
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In this review, several tropical air-breathing fishes, which can tolerate high environmental ammonia exposure, are used as examples to demonstrate how eight different adaptations can be involved in defence against ammonia toxicity. Expand
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Eight extant air-breathing fishes with distinctive terrestrial behaviors and peculiar natural habitats were selected to describe in detail how these seven strategies could be adopted in disparate combinations to ameliorate ammonia toxicity during emersion. Expand
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This review attempts to draw together recent information to update the mechanisms of ammonia and urea transport by the gills of aquatic species and points out several potentially fruitful avenues for further research. Expand
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The results suggest that when confronted with acute ammonia toxicity, the survival of C. gariepinus was crucially determined by its high tolerance of ammonia and high capacity to detoxify ammonia to glutamine in the brain. Expand
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Effects of hypoxia on the energy status and nitrogen metabolism of African lungfish during aestivation in a mucus cocoon
TLDR
Results indicate for the first time that P. annectens exhibited different adaptive responses during aestivation in normoxia and in hypoxia, and indicate that reduction in nitrogen metabolism, and probably metabolic rate, did not occur simply in association with aestivation but responded more effectively to a combined effect of aestivation and Hypoxia. Expand
Active ammonia transport and excretory nitrogen metabolism in the climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, during 4 days of emersion or 10 minutes of forced exercise on land
TLDR
It can be concluded that 4 days of emersion caused an increase in ammonia production in A. testudineus, and probably because of this, a transient increase in the glutamine content in the brain occurred, and it can be deduced that increased ammonia production during emersion was a result of increased amino acid catabolism and protein degradation. Expand
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In this review, several tropical air-breathing fishes, which can tolerate high environmental ammonia exposure, are used as examples to demonstrate how eight different adaptations can be involved in defence against ammonia toxicity. Expand
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