Fish locomotion: kinematics and hydrodynamics of flexible foil-like fins

@article{Lauder2007FishLK,
  title={Fish locomotion: kinematics and hydrodynamics of flexible foil-like fins},
  author={George V. Lauder and Peter G. Madden},
  journal={Experiments in Fluids},
  year={2007},
  volume={43},
  pages={641-653}
}
The fins of fishes are remarkable propulsive devices that appear at the origin of fishes about 500 million years ago and have been a key feature of fish evolutionary diversification. Most fish species possess both median (midline) dorsal, anal, and caudal fins as well as paired pectoral and pelvic fins. Fish fins are supported by jointed skeletal elements, fin rays, that in turn support a thin collagenous membrane. Muscles at the base of the fin attach to and actuate each fin ray, and fish fins… Expand

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