Fish Consumption, Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease. The Science and the Clinical Trials

  title={Fish Consumption, Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease. The Science and the Clinical Trials},
  author={Claudio Galli and Patrizia Ris{\'e}},
  journal={Nutrition and Health},
  pages={11 - 20}
Fats in fish and marine animals are rich in highly unsaturated fatty acids (FA with 5 or more double bonds) of the Omega 3 series. These FA, present in aquatic animals as an adaptation to the environmental conditions, reached the human diet through the food chain, with a significant impact on nutrition, life style and cultural conditions. Studies in the 70's showed that high fish consumption is associated with better cardiovascular health and this observation was subsequently confirmed in many… 
Human body is capable of producing various types of fatty acids from other fats as well as from other substances (raw materials). However in case of omega-3 fatty acids, it does not happen because
Effects of a convenience drink fortified with n-3 fatty acids on the n-3 index
The results showed that daily intake of a convenience drink supplemented with n-3 fatty acids leads to a significant increase of the n- 3 index with high interindividual variability in response.
Essential fatty acids in the treatment of dry eye.
Reprint of: Cardiovascular Disease Prevention by Diet Modification: JACC Health Promotion Series.
Health professionals should be proficient in basic nutritional knowledge to promote a sustainable pattern of healthful eating for cardiovascular disease prevention for both healthy individuals and those at higher risk.
Emerging importance of omega-3 fatty acids in the innate immune response: molecular mechanisms and lipidomic strategies for their analysis.
An overview of the biosynthetic pathways and biological properties of these omega-3 mediators is provided, with a particular focus on the emerging importance of the counter-regulatory role of Omega-3 and -6 fatty acids in the spatial and temporal regulation of the inflammatory response.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease
The most up-to-date evidence of the association between PUFA consumption and reduced cardiovascular mortality is reviewed.
The Effect of omega-3 fatty acid Supplementation with aerobic exercise on inflammatory cytokine concentrations in atherosclerotic patients
According to the findings of this study, the impact aerobic exercises along with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation because of its high anti-inflammatory properties, it can be useful to patients with cardiovascular problems and should be taken seriously.
Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammation: The Role of Phospholipid Biosynthesis
Factors that control phospholipid biosynthesis within cellular membranes, such as preferential incorporation of some fatty acids, competition between newly ingested PUFA and fatty acids released from stores such as adipose, are explained.
Sex Differences in Early Programming by Maternal High Fat Diet Induced-Obesity and Fish Oil Supplementation in Mice
Supplementation of FO in mice improved metabolic health of offspring by lowering markers of lipid synthesis and inflammation, and showed no sex specific differences in gonadal fat and liver of mice supplemented with HF.


n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review.
Evidence suggests that increased consumption of n-3 FAs from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not of alpha-linolenic acid, reduces the rates of all-cause mortality, cardiac and sudden death, and possibly stroke.
Enhanced incorporation of n−3 fatty acids from fish compared with fish oils
Fish consumption is more effective in increasing serum EPA and DHA than supplementing the diet with fish oil, and it is suggested that the larger uptake from fish than CLO is due to differences in physiochemical structure of the lipids.
Dietary intake of fish vs. formulations leads to higher plasma concentrations of n−3 fatty acids
Experimental evidence is provided that n−3 fatty acids from fish are more effectively incorporated into plasma lipids than when administered as capsules and that increments in plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA given as capsules are linearly correlated with their intakes.
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases.
  • P. Calder
  • Medicine, Biology
    The American journal of clinical nutrition
  • 2006
At sufficiently high intakes, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), as found in oily fish and fish oils, decrease the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species and the expression of adhesion molecules, and are potentially potent antiinflammatory agents.
Omega-3 fatty acids and prevention of arrhythmias
  • A. Leaf
  • Biology, Medicine
    Current opinion in lipidology
  • 2007
Purpose of review There is now a considerable factual basis from laboratory and clinical trials that omega-3 fatty acids of fish oil will prevent fatal arrhythmias in animals and humans and this is
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The evolutionary collision of the authors' ancient genome with the nutritional qualities of recently introduced foods may underlie many of the chronic diseases of Western civilization.
The composition of the Eskimo food in north western Greenland.
The rarity of ischemic heart disease in Greenland Eskimos may partly be explained by the antithrombotic effect of the long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid prevalent in diets rich in marine oils.
Dietary fat intake and prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review
Abstract Objective: To assess the effect of reduction or modification of dietary fat intake on total and cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. Design: Systematic review. Data