First record of pughead skeletal deformity in the queen angelfish Holacanthus ciliaris (St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago, Mid Atlantic Ridge, Brazil)

@article{FranciniFilho2012FirstRO,
  title={First record of pughead skeletal deformity in the queen angelfish Holacanthus ciliaris (St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago, Mid Atlantic Ridge, Brazil)},
  author={Ronaldo Bastos Francini-Filho and Gilberto Menezes Amado-Filho},
  journal={Coral Reefs},
  year={2012},
  volume={32},
  pages={211}
}
Pughead skeletal deformity (i.e., antero-posterior compression of the upper jaw, with the resulting apparent protrusion of the lower jaw) has been recorded in a few reef fish species under natural conditions, generally at a low frequency (Gassman et al. 1994; Macieira and Joyeux 2007). Cranial skeletal abnormalities such as pugheadedness are relatively common in captive fish, with likely causative agents including chemical contaminants, dietary limitations or excesses, temperature variations… 
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References

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Marine zoogeography of St Paul's Rocks
TLDR
It is concluded that St Paul's is essentially an impoverished shallow water marine fauna because the primary route of immigration for shallow water benthic species has been from Brazil, via the Atlantic Equatorial Undercurrent.
Coral Reefs
As Dr. Guppy asks for information with regard to the corals found living at the greater depths round islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans the following may be of interest.
DOI 10.1007/s00338-012-0975-z Reef sites
  • DOI 10.1007/s00338-012-0975-z Reef sites
&) Departamento de Engenharia e Meio Ambiente
  • &) Departamento de Engenharia e Meio Ambiente
Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22460-030, Brazil Fig. 1 a A healthy queen angelfish H. ciliaris (about 35 cm total length) and b A pughead H. ciliaris (about 30 cm total length) at St
  • Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22460-030, Brazil Fig. 1 a A healthy queen angelfish H. ciliaris (about 35 cm total length) and b A pughead H. ciliaris (about 30 cm total length) at St