Ameliorative Effects of Kolaviron, a Biflavonoid Fraction from Garcinia Kola Seed, on Hepato-renal Toxicity of Anti-tuberculosis Drugs in Wistar Rats.
BACKGROUND The first-line antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs, isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), and pyrazinamide (PZA), are effective in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. However, the toxicity of these drugs in the clinical setting limits their use. Here, we evaluated the effects of anti-TB drugs on the reproductive system in female rats. METHODS Thirty-five female Wistar rats were assigned into five groups of seven animals each. The control group received normal saline, whereas others received INH (5 mg/kg), RIF (10 mg/kg), EMB (15 mg/kg), and PZA (15 mg/kg) through gavage thrice a week for 8 consecutive weeks. RESULTS Administration of anti-TB drugs significantly (p<0.05) reduced uterine and ovarian weight, as well as the relative weight of the uterus when compared with controls. In addition, anti-TB drugs increased the activities of alanine aminotransferase as well as the level of total bilirubin. Treatment with INH, RIF, and PZA significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, estrogen, and prolactin. The INH, RIF, EMB, and PZA caused significant (p<0.05) increases in uterine malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by 281%, 214%, 273% and 190%, respectively, whereas INH and EMB increased the ovarian malondialdehyde by 111% and 129%, respectively. These drugs significantly (p<0.05) decreased the activities of ovarian glutathione-S-transferase and uterine glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Histology revealed the erosion of uterine mucosa, debris in the lumen of the uterus, congestion, and underdeveloped follicles in ovaries. CONCLUSIONS The first-line anti-TB drugs elicited reproductive toxicity in the uterus and ovaries of rats through mechanisms that involved oxidative stress.