First in situ plasma and neutral gas measurements at comet Halley

  title={First in situ plasma and neutral gas measurements at comet Halley},
  author={K. I. Gringauz and Tamas I. I. Gombosi and A. P. Remizov and Istv{\'a}n Ap{\'a}thy and Istvan B. Szemerey and Mikhail I. Verigin and L. I. Denchikova and A. V. Dyachkov and Erhard Keppler and I. N. Klimenko and Arne K. Richter and Antal J. Somogyi and Karoly Szego and S. Szendrő and Mariella T{\'a}trallyay and Andr{\'a}s Varga and G. A. Vladimirova},
We present the first in situ observations and a description of the large-scale behaviour of comet Halley's plasma environment. The PLASMAG-1 experiment, carried aboard the spacecraft Vega 1 and Vega 2, had the following aims: (1) to study the change of plasma parameters and distributions as a function of distance from the nucleus; (2) to investigate the existence and structure of the cometary bow shock; (3) to determine the change in chemical composition of the heavily mass-loaded plasma as the… 

Comet P/Halley neutral gas density profile along the Vega-1 trajectory measured by the Neutral Gas Experiment

Two complementary gas analyzers comprised the Neutral Gas Experiment (NGE) on the two Vega spacecraft sent to comet Halley. Although no significant mass spectra were obtained, data returned from the

Plasma properties from the upstream region to the cometopause of comet P/Halley: Vega observations

Based on the Plasmag-1 plasma measurements on board Vega-1 and -2, evidence is provided for the deceleration upstream, for the heating at and for the thermalization and deceleration behind the bow

Global Solar Wind Interaction and Ionospheric Dynamics

  • W. Ip
  • Physics, Geology
  • 2005
The spacecraft missions to Comets 21P/Giacobini-Zinner and 1P/Halley in the mid-1980s revolutionized our knowledge of comets and their interaction with the solar wind. Besides the large-scale plasma

Electron distributions upstream of the comet Halley bow shock: Evidence for adiabatic heating

We report on three-dimensional plasma electron (22 eV to 30 keV) observations upstream of the comet Halley bow shock, obtained by the RPA-1 COPERNIC (Reme Plasma Analyzer - Complete Positive Ion,

Plasma Processes in the Outer Coma

Spacecraft encounters with comets Giacobini-Zinner and Halley revealed a great variety of collective plasma phenomena accompanying the interaction of the solar wind with comets. In this review, we

Comet Halley dust environment from SP-2 detector measurements

The SP-2 experiment carried by the Vega spacecraft during their encounter with comet Halley was designed to determine the spatial distribution of cometary dust particles and their mass distribution



The Bow Wave of comet Giacobini-Zinner:ICE Magnetic Field Observations (GRL 13(3) 1986)

Fitting of a Mach 2 shock surface to the ICE magnetic field data obtained near Comet Giacobini-Zinner has provided subsolar bow wave distances that infer neutral gas outflow rates comparable to

Magnetic field observations in comet Halley's coma

During the encounter with comet Halley, the magnetometer (MISCHA) aboard the Vega 1 spacecraft observed an increased level of magnetic field turbulence, resulting from an upstream bow wave. Both Vega

Mass loading and MHD turbulence in the solar wind/comet interaction region

One of the most striking features discovered during the encounter of space probe ICE and comet Giacobini-Zinner was the presence of intensive MHD turbulence even at large distances from the comet. In

Solar wind stagnation near comets

The nature of the solar wind flow near comets is examined analytically in this paper. In particular, typical values for the stagnation pressure and magnetic barrier strength are estimated, taking