First fossil chimpanzee

  title={First fossil chimpanzee},
  author={Sally A. McBrearty and Nina G. Jablonski},
There are thousands of fossils of hominins, but no fossil chimpanzee has yet been reported. The chimpanzee (Pan) is the closest living relative to humans. Chimpanzee populations today are confined to wooded West and central Africa, whereas most hominin fossil sites occur in the semi-arid East African Rift Valley. This situation has fuelled speculation regarding causes for the divergence of the human and chimpanzee lineages five to eight million years ago. Some investigators have invoked a shift… 

Fossil Record of Miocene Hominoids

  • D. Begun
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2013
Hominoids, or taxa identified as hominoids, are known from much of Africa, Asia, and Europe since the Late Oligocene. The earliest such taxa, from Africa, resemble extant hominoids but share with

Hypothesis: brain size and skull shape as criteria for a new hominin family tree.

  • P. Chardin
  • Biology
    Homo : internationale Zeitschrift fur die vergleichende Forschung am Menschen
  • 2014

Chimpanzee genomic diversity reveals ancient admixture with bonobos

It is found that chimpanzee population substructure makes genetic information a good predictor of geographic origin at country and regional scales and also provides population-specific genetic markers that may be valuable for conservation efforts.

A paradigm for the evolution of human features: Apes trapped on barren volcanic islands

  • A. Krill
  • Environmental Science, Biology
  • 2020
A marine aquatic evolution that is speculative, but compatible with all the fossil and genetic evidence for human evolution, in which hominins evolved from chimpanzee-like apes that became stranded on proto-Bioko — new volcanic islands with no terrestrial foods available.

Primitive Catarrhines and Fossil Apes

Fossil hominin ulnae and the forelimb of Paranthropus.

This study reassess the affinities of OH 36 using a different data set that includes more recently discovered hominin fossils including those attributed to Paranthropus, and results agree with those of Aiello et al. that OH 36 is distinctly different from modern chimpanzees.

The environmental context of human evolutionary history in Eurasia and Africa

  • S. Elton
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Journal of anatomy
  • 2008
This review has three main aims: (1) to make specific predictions about the habitat of the hypothetical last common ancestor of the chimpanzee/bonobo–human clade; (2) to outline the major trends in

On the Number of Ancestral Human Species

The fossil record is shown to likely dramatically under sample species diversity for the hominin clade while at the same time substantially underestimating species longevity, suggesting the human clade may be characterised by a large number of rapidly evolving and relatively short-lived species.

Apes and Tricksters: The Evolution and Diversification of Humans’ Closest Relatives

This paper briefly review this evolutionary history of ape evolution focusing on features important for understanding modern ape and human origins, and characterize major geographic, temporal, and phylogenetic groups using a few flagship taxa.

Names, They Are A-Changing

The fossil record of human ancestors is dense compared to the fossil record for many other branches on the tree of life. For example, though thousands of fossils from hominins (organisms that are



Isotopic Evidence for Neogene Hominid Paleoenvironments in the Kenya Rift Valley

If hominids evolved in East Africa during the Late Miocene, they did so in an ecologically diverse setting with a heterogeneous environment with a mix of C3 and C4 plants has persisted for the last 15.5 million years.

Molecular phylogeny of the hominoids: inferences from multiple independent DNA sequence data sets.

  • M. Ruvolo
  • Biology
    Molecular biology and evolution
  • 1997
The multiple-locus test (Wu 1991), which evaluates hypotheses using gene tree-species tree mismatch probabilities in a likelihood ratio test, favors the phylogeny with a Homo-Pan clade and rejects the other alternatives with a P value of 0.002: the problem of hominoid phylogeny can be confidently considered solved.

West African chimpanzees : status survey and conservation action plan

The aim of this publication is to halt or reverse the decline in chimpanzee numbers in West Africa by increasing awareness of their plight and by presenting a plan for action that represents a consensus among all parties concerned with the conservation of chimpanzees.

East side story: the origin of humankind.

The issue of the authors' precise origin needs to be addressed, and the question of when, where and why did the branch that led to us, the genus Homo, diverge from the branch of an immense tree of life, a tree that has been developing and growing ever more diverse over a period of four billion years is addressed.

Variability in traces of Middle Pleistocene hominid behavior in the Kapthurin Formation , Baringo , Kenya

New research in the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya, suggests a greater degree of variability in hominid behavior during the late Middle Pleistocene than has previously been suspected. The Middle

Dental development of known-age chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes (primates, pongidae)

The first study of crown and root calcification in the lower permanent molar teeth among chimpanzees of known chronological age is reported, finding a much greater degree of temporal overlap in calcification of the crowns of adjacent molars, a pattern very unlike that usually seen in human dental development.

Great Ape Societies: Minds

This book discusses chimpanzees, Savanna chimpanzees, referential models and the Last Common Ancestor, and a new milestone in great ape research Junichiro Itani's research.

Hypothesis for the causes and periodicity of repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia in large, wild African (Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla) and Asian (Pongo pygmaeus) apes.

It is concluded that stress in the form of LEH commences as early as 2.5 years of age in all taxa and lasts for several years, and even longer in orangutans, and that this seasonal stress is sufficiently common and of long duration that it may reflect significant stress in recent and, inferentially, fossil apes.