First direct observation of Dirac fermions in graphite

  title={First direct observation of Dirac fermions in graphite},
  author={S. Y. Zhou and Gey-Hong Gweon and Jeff Graf and A. V. Fedorov and Catalin D. Spataru and Renee D. Diehl and Yakov Kopelevich and D-H Lee and Steven G. Louie and Alessandra Lanzara},
  journal={Nature Physics},
Originating from relativistic quantum field theory, Dirac fermions have been invoked recently to explain various peculiar phenomena in condensed-matter physics, including the novel quantum Hall effect in graphene1,2, the magnetic-field-driven metal–insulator-like transition in graphite3,4, superfluidity in 3He (ref. 5) and the exotic pseudogap phase of high-temperature superconductors6,7. Despite their proposed key role in those systems, direct experimental evidence of Dirac fermions has been… Expand
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  • Weixuan Zhang, Hao Yuan, +5 authors Xiangdong Zhang
  • Communications Physics
  • 2021
Relativistic quantum mechanics has been developed for nearly a century to characterize the high-energy physics in quantum domain, and various intriguing phenomena without low-energy counterparts haveExpand
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A remarkable manifestation of the quantum character of electrons in matter is offered by graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite. Unlike conventional solids where electrons are described with theExpand
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In a clean Fermi liquid, due to spin up/spin down symmetry, the dc spin current driven by a magnetic field gradient is finite even in the absence of impurities. Hence, the spin conductivity σsExpand


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This study reports an experimental study of a condensed-matter system (graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon) in which electron transport is essentially governed by Dirac's (relativistic) equation and reveals a variety of unusual phenomena that are characteristic of two-dimensional Dirac fermions. Expand
Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene
An experimental investigation of magneto-transport in a high-mobility single layer of graphene observes an unusual half-integer quantum Hall effect for both electron and hole carriers in graphene. Expand
Electronic properties of disordered two-dimensional carbon
Two-dimensional carbon, or graphene, is a semimetal that presents unusual low-energy electronic excitations described in terms of Dirac fermions. We analyze in a self-consistent way the effects ofExpand
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  • G. Volovik
  • Physics, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1999
High-temperature superconductors are believed to belong to class 4, which has gapless fermionic quasiparticles with a "relativistic" spectrum close to gap nodes, which allows application of ideas developed for superfluid 3He-A. Expand
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Unconventional Quasiparticle Lifetime in Graphite.
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The agreement obtained in the framework of the density-functional theory for electronic energies at the Fermi level is surprisingly good. Expand
Electronic properties of graphene multilayers.
It is shown that the quasiparticle decay rate has a minimum as a function of energy, there is a universal minimum value for the in-plane conductivity of order e(2)/h per plane and, unexpectedly, the c-axis conductivity is enhanced by disorder at low doping, leading to an enormous conductivity anisotropy at low temperatures. Expand