First aid treatment of jellyfish stings in Australia Response to a newly differentiated species

@article{Fenner1993FirstAT,
  title={First aid treatment of jellyfish stings in Australia Response to a newly differentiated species},
  author={Peter J. Fenner and John A. Williamson and Joseph W. Burnett and Jacqueline F. Rifkin},
  journal={Medical Journal of Australia},
  year={1993},
  volume={158}
}
Vinegar has been shown to inhibit nematocyst discharge in Chironex fleckeri, the deadly north Australian box‐Jellyfish, and application of vinegar has become accepted first aid, not only for box‐jellyfish stings, but also for stings by other Australian jellyfish. However, in a newly differentiated species of Physalia in Australian waters, which causes severe envenomation, vinegar was found to cause discharge in up to 30% of nematocysts. In treating these stings, the use of vinegar is not… 
Jellyfish Stings and Their Management: A Review
TLDR
There seems to be evidence and consensus on oral/topical analgesics, hot water and ice packs as effective painkillers and on 30 s application of domestic vinegar to prevent further discharge of unfired nematocysts remaining on the skin.
Holiday hazards: common stings from New World visits
  • D. Kaplan
  • Medicine
    Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • 2003
TLDR
Ocean bound travellers should be aware of the three medically important orders of free swimming jellyfish: the common jellyfish; the Portuguese Man-o-War or ‘blue-bottle’; and the box-type (cubozoan) jellyfish which are commonly referred to as ‘sea wasps’.
Case report of jelly fish stinging in Bay of Bengal: A report from Bangladesh
TLDR
A 30 year old male patient was stung by a jellyfish while tishering in the Bay of Bengal near Teknaf of Cox's Bazar District on 3rd June' 2013 and recovered completely within four days.
Assessing the Efficacy of First-Aid Measures in Physalia sp. Envenomation, Using Solution- and Blood Agarose-Based Models
TLDR
Commercial available vinegars, as well as the recently developed Sting No More® Spray, were the most effective rinse solutions, as they irreversibly inhibited cnidae discharge.
JELLYFISH STINGS : COMPLICATIONS AND MANAGEMENT By TOSSON
Jellyfish and sea jellies are the informal common names given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of subphylum Medusozoa, the majority of phylum Cnidaria. Jellyfish are mainly
Vinegar as a disarming agent to prevent further discharge of the nematocysts of the stinging hydromedusa Olindias sambaquiensis.
TLDR
This is the first report of the use of vinegar in disarming O sambaquiensis nematocysts and includes preliminary observations on its use in managing the stings of hydromedusae.
An in-vitro examination of the effect of vinegar on discharged nematocysts of Chironex fleckeri.
TLDR
This in-vitro research suggests that vinegar promotes further discharge of venom from already discharged nematocysts, raising concern that vinegar has the potential to do harm when used as first aid in C. fleckeri envenomation.
Biology and ecology of Irukandji jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa).
Eye injury after jellyfish sting in temperate Australia.
TLDR
The patient, a 54-year-old man, was stung while swimming without goggles in a jellyfish-infested bay and experienced severe pain in his right eye, requiring narcotic analgesia, and had decreased visual acuity associated with right-sided facial swelling.
...
...