Prior studies have examined the role of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and increased risk of miscarriage; however the risk has been modest and many BV positive pregnant women deliver at term. BV is microbiologically heterogeneous, and thus the identification of specific BV-associated bacteria associated with miscarriage is warranted. We measured the presence and level of seven BV-associated bacteria prior to 14 weeks gestation among urban pregnant women seeking routine prenatal care at five urban obstetric practices at Temple University Hospital in Philadelphia PA from July 2008 through September 2011. 418 Pregnant women were included in this assessment and 74 experienced a miscarriage. Mean log concentration of BVAB3 was significantly higher among women experiencing a miscarriage (4.27 vs. 3.71, p value = 0.012). Younger women with high levels of BVAB3 had the greatest risk of miscarriage. In addition, we found a significant decreased risk of miscarriage among women with higher log concentrations of Leptotrichia/Sneathia species or Megasphaera phylotype 1-like species early in pregnancy. The identification of selected vaginal bacteria associated with an increased risk of miscarriage could support screening programs early in pregnancy and promote early therapies to reduce early pregnancy loss.