First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. VI. Testing the Black Hole Metric

@article{Collaboration2022FirstSA,
  title={First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. VI. Testing the Black Hole Metric},
  author={Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration and Kazunori Akiyama and Antxon Alberdi and Walter Alef and Juan Carlos Algaba and Richard Anantua and Keiichi Asada and Rebecca Azulay and Uwe Bach and Anne-Kathrin Baczko and David Ball and Mislav Balokovi{\'c} and John Barrett and Michi Baub{\"o}ck and Bradford A. Benson and Dan Bintley and Lindy L. Blackburn and Raymond Blundell and Katherine L. Bouman and Geoff C. Bower and Hope Boyce and Michael Bremer and Christiaan D. Brinkerink and Roger Brissenden and Silke Britzen and Avery E. Broderick and Dominique Broguiere and Thomas Bronzwaer and Sandra Bustamante and Do-young Byun and John E. Carlstrom and Chiara Ceccobello and Andrew Chael and Chi-kwan Chan and Koushik Chatterjee and Shami Chatterjee and Ming-Tang Chen and Yongjun 永 军 Chen 陈 and Xiaopeng Cheng and Ilje Cho and Pierre Christian and Nicholas S. Conroy and John E. Conway and James M. Cordes and Thomas M. Crawford and Geoffrey B. Crew and Alejandro Cruz-Osorio and Yuzhu 玉竹 Cui 崔 and Jordy Davelaar and Mariafelicia De Laurentis and Roger Deane and Jessica Dempsey and Gregory Desvignes and Jason Dexter and Vedant Dhruv and Sheperd S. Doeleman and Sean Dougal and Sergio A. Dzib and Ralph P. Eatough and Razieh Emami and Heino Falcke and Joseph R. Farah and Vincent L. Fish and Edward B. Fomalont and Heather A. Ford and Raquel Fraga-Encinas and William T. Freeman and Per Friberg and Christian M. Fromm and Antonio Fuentes and Peter Galison and Charles F. Gammie and Roberto Garc{\'i}a and Olivier Gentaz and Boris Georgiev and Ciriaco Goddi and Roman Gold and Arturo I. G{\'o}mez-Ruiz and Jos{\'e} L. G{\'o}mez and Minfeng 敏峰 Gu 顾 and Mark A. Gurwell and Kazuhiro Hada and Daryl Haggard and Kari Haworth and Michael H. Hecht and Ronald Hesper and Dirk Heumann and Luis C. 子山 Ho 何 and Paul T. P. Ho and Mareki Honma and Chih-Wei L. Huang and Lei 磊 Huang 黄 and David H. Hughes and Shiro Ikeda and C. M. Violette Impellizzeri and Makoto Inoue and Sara Issaoun and David J. James and Buell T. Jannuzi and Michael Janssen and Britton Jeter and Wu 悟 Jiang 江 and Alejandra Jim{\'e}nez-Rosales and Michael D. Johnson and Svetlana G. Jorstad and Abhishek V. Joshi and Taehyun Jung and Mansour Karami and Ramesh Karuppusamy and Tomohisa Kawashima and Garrett K. Keating and Mark Kettenis and Dong-Jin Kim and Jae-Young Kim and Jongsoo Kim and Junhan Kim and Motoki Kino and Jun Yi Koay and Prashant Kocherlakota and Yutaro Kofuji and Patrick M. Koch and Shoko Koyama and Carsten Kramer and Michael Kramer and Thomas P. Krichbaum and C. Y. Kuo and Noemi La Bella and Tod R. Lauer and Daeyoung Lee and Sang-Sung Lee and Po Kin Leung and Aviad Levis and Zhiyuan 志远 Li 李 and Rocco Lico and Greg Lindahl and Michael Lindqvist and Mikhail M. Lisakov and Jun 俊 Liu 刘 and Kuo Liu and Elisabetta Liuzzo and Wen-Ping Lo and Andrei P. Lobanov and Laurent Loinard and Colin J. Lonsdale and Ru-Sen 如森 Lu 路 and Jirong 基荣 Mao 毛 and Nicola Marchili and Sera B. Markoff and Daniel P. Marrone and Alan P. Marscher and Iv{\'a}n Mart{\'i}-Vidal and Satoki Matsushita and Lynn D. Matthews and Lia Medeiros and Karl M. Menten and Daniel Michalik and Izumi Mizuno and Yosuke Mizuno and James M. Moran and Kotaro Moriyama and Monika Mościbrodzka and Cornelia M{\"u}ller and Alejandro Mus and Gibwa Musoke and Ioannis Myserlis and Andrew Nadolski and Hiroshi Nagai and Neil M. Nagar and Masanori Nakamura and Ramesh Narayan and Gopal Narayanan and Iniyan Natarajan and Antonios Nathanail and Santiago Navarro Fuentes and Joey Neilsen and Roberto Neri and Chunchong Ni and Aristeidis Noutsos and Michael A. Nowak and Junghwan Oh and Hiroki Okino and H{\'e}ctor Olivares and Gisela N. Ortiz-L{\'e}on and Tomoaki Oyama and Feryal {\"O}zel and Daniel C. M. Palumbo and Georgios Filippos Paraschos and Jongho Park and Harriet Parsons and Nimesh Patel and Ue-li Pen and Dominic W. Pesce and Vincent Pi{\'e}tu and Richard L. Plambeck and Aleksandar PopStefanija and Oliver Porth and Felix M. P{\"o}tzl and Ben S. Prather and Jorge A. Preciado-L{\'o}pez and Dimitrios Psaltis and Hung-Yi Pu and Venkatessh Ramakrishnan and Ramprasad Rao and Mark G. Rawlings and Alexander W. Raymond and Luciano Rezzolla and Angelo Ricarte and Bart Ripperda and Freek Roelofs and Alan E. E. Rogers and Eduardo Ros and Cristina Romero-Ca{\~n}izales and Arash Roshanineshat and Helge Rottmann and Alan L. Roy and Ignacio Ruiz and Chester A. Ruszczyk and Kazi L. J. Rygl and Salvador S{\'a}nchez and David S{\'a}nchez-Arg{\"u}elles and Miguel S{\'a}nchez-Portal and Mahito Sasada and Kaushik Satapathy and Tuomas Savolainen and F. P. Schloerb and Jonathan Schonfeld and Karl F. Schuster and Lijing Shao and Zhiqiang 志强 Shen 沈 and Des Small and Bong Won Sohn and Jason SooHoo and Kamal Souccar and He 赫 Sun 孙 and Fumie Tazaki and Alexandra J. Tetarenko and Paul Tiede and Remo P. J. Tilanus and Michael Titus and Pablo Torne and Efthalia Traianou and Tyler Trent and Sascha Trippe and Matthew Turk and I. M. van Bemmel and Huib Jan van Langevelde and Daniel R. van Rossum and Jesse Vos and Jan Wagner and Derek Ward-Thompson and J. F. C. Wardle and Jonathan Weintroub and Norbert Wex and Robert S. Wharton and Maciek Wielgus and Kaj Wiik and Gunther Witzel and Michael F. Wondrak and George N. Wong and Qingwen 庆文 Wu 吴 and Paul Yamaguchi and Doosoo Yoon and Andr{\'e} Young and K. H. Young and Ziri Younsi and Feng 峰 Yuan 袁 and Ye-Fei 业 飞 Yuan 袁 and J. Anton Zensus and Shuo Zhang and Guangyao Zhao and Shan-Shan 杉杉 Zhao 赵},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal Letters},
  year={2022},
  volume={930}
}
Astrophysical black holes are expected to be described by the Kerr metric. This is the only stationary, vacuum, axisymmetric metric, without electromagnetic charge, that satisfies Einstein’s equations and does not have pathologies outside of the event horizon. We present new constraints on potential deviations from the Kerr prediction based on 2017 EHT observations of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). We calibrate the relationship between the geometrically defined black hole shadow and the observed size… 
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First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Testing Astrophysical Models of the Galactic Center Black Hole
In this paper we provide a first physical interpretation for the Event Horizon Telescope's (EHT) 2017 observations of Sgr A*. Our main approach is to compare resolved EHT data at 230 GHz and
First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. IV. Variability, Morphology, and Black Hole Mass
In this paper we quantify the temporal variability and image morphology of the horizon-scale emission from Sgr A*, as observed by the EHT in 2017 April at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. We find that the Sgr
The current ability to test theories of gravity with black hole shadows
Our Galactic Centre, Sagittarius A*, is believed to harbour a supermassive black hole, as suggested by observations tracking individual orbiting stars1,2. Upcoming submillimetre very-long baseline
Using space-VLBI to probe gravity around Sgr A*
Context. The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) will soon provide the first high-resolution images of the Galactic Centre supermassive black hole candidate Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), enabling us to probe
First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Imaging of the Galactic Center Supermassive Black Hole
We present the first event-horizon-scale images and spatiotemporal analysis of Sgr A* taken with the Event Horizon Telescope in 2017 April at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. Imaging of Sgr A* has been
First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VI. The Shadow and Mass of the Central Black Hole
We present measurements of the properties of the central radio source in M87 using Event Horizon Telescope data obtained during the 2017 campaign. We develop and fit geometric crescent models
A Parametric Model for the Shapes of Black Hole Shadows in Non-Kerr Spacetimes
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is taking the first images of black holes resolved at horizon scales to measure their shadows and probe accretion physics. A promising avenue for testing the
How to tell an accreting boson star from a black hole
The capability of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) to image the nearest supermassive black hole candidates at horizon-scale resolutions offers a novel means to study gravity in its strongest
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Context. The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration recently obtained first images of the surroundings of the supermassive compact object M87* at the center of the galaxy M87. Aims. We want to
Dynamically important magnetic fields near the event horizon of Sgr A*
We study the time-variable linear polarisation of Sgr A* during a bright near-infrared flare observed with the GRAVITY instrument on July 28, 2018. Motivated by the time evolution of both the
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