First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole in the Center of the Milky Way

@article{Akiyama2022FirstSA,
  title={First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole in the Center of the Milky Way},
  author={Kazunori Akiyama and Antxon Alberdi and Walter Alef and Juan Carlos Algaba and Richard Anantua and Keiichi Asada and Rebecca Azulay and Uwe Bach and Anne-Kathrin Baczko and David Ball and Mislav Balokovi{\'c} and John Barrett and Michi Baub{\"o}ck and Bradford A. Benson and Dan Bintley and Lindy L. Blackburn and Raymond Blundell and Katherine L. Bouman and Geoffrey C. Bower and Hope Boyce and Michael Bremer and Christiaan D. Brinkerink and Roger Brissenden and Silke Britzen and Avery E. Broderick and Dominique Broguiere and Thomas Bronzwaer and Sandra Bustamante and Do-young Byun and John E. Carlstrom and Chiara Ceccobello and Andrew Chael and Chi-kwan Chan and Koushik Chatterjee and Shami Chatterjee and Ming-Tang Chen and Yongjun 永 军 Chen 陈 and Xiaopeng Cheng and Ilje Cho and Pierre Christian and Nicholas S. Conroy and John E. Conway and James M. Cordes and Thomas M. Crawford and Geoffrey B. Crew and Alejandro Cruz-Osorio and Yuzhu 玉竹 Cui 崔 and Jordy Davelaar and Mariafelicia De Laurentis and Roger Deane and Jessica Dempsey and Gregory Desvignes and Jason Dexter and Vedant Dhruv and Sheperd S. Doeleman and Sean Dougal and Sergio A. Dzib and Ralph P. Eatough and Razieh Emami and Heino Falcke and Joseph R. Farah and Vincent L. Fish and Edward B. Fomalont and Heather A. Ford and Raquel Fraga-Encinas and William T. Freeman and Per Friberg and Christian M. Fromm and Antonio Fuentes and Peter Galison and Charles F. Gammie and Roberto Garc{\'i}a and Olivier Gentaz and Boris Georgiev and Ciriaco Goddi and Roman Gold and Arturo I. G{\'o}mez-Ruiz and Jos{\'e} L. G{\'o}mez and Minfeng 敏峰 Gu 顾 and Mark A. Gurwell and Kazuhiro Hada and Daryl Haggard and Kari Haworth and Michael H. Hecht and Ronald Hesper and Dirk Heumann and Luis C. 子山 Ho 何 and Paul T. P. Ho and Mareki Honma and Chih-Wei L. Huang and Lei 磊 Huang 黄 and David H. Hughes and Shiro Ikeda and C. M. Violette Impellizzeri and Makoto Inoue and Sara Issaoun and David J. James and Buell T. Jannuzi and Michael Janssen and Britton Jeter and Wu 悟 Jiang 江 and Alejandra Jim{\'e}nez-Rosales and Michael D. Johnson and Svetlana G. Jorstad and Abhishek V. Joshi and Taehyun Jung and Mansour Karami and Ramesh Karuppusamy and Tomohisa Kawashima and Garrett K. Keating and Mark Kettenis and Dong-Jin Kim and Jae-Young Kim and Jongsoo Kim and Junhan Kim and Motoki Kino and Jun Yi Koay and Prashant Kocherlakota and Yutaro Kofuji and Patrick M. Koch and Shoko Koyama and Carsten Kramer and Michael Kramer and Thomas P. Krichbaum and C. Y. Kuo and Noemi La Bella and Tod R. Lauer and Daeyoung Lee and Sang-Sung Lee and Po Kin Leung and Aviad Levis and Zhiyuan 志远 Li 李 and Rocco Lico and Greg Lindahl and Michael Lindqvist and Mikhail M. Lisakov and Jun 俊 Liu 刘 and Kuo Liu and Elisabetta Liuzzo and Wen-Ping Lo and Andrei P. Lobanov and Laurent Loinard and Colin J. Lonsdale and Ru-Sen 如森 Lu 路 and Jirong 基荣 Mao 毛 and Nicola Marchili and Sera B. Markoff and Daniel P. Marrone and Alan P. Marscher and Iv{\'a}n Mart{\'i}-Vidal and Satoki Matsushita and Lynn D. Matthews and Lia Medeiros and Karl M. Menten and Daniel Michalik and Izumi Mizuno and Yosuke Mizuno and James M. Moran and Kotaro Moriyama and Monika Mościbrodzka and Cornelia M{\"u}ller and Alejandro Mus and Gibwa Musoke and Ioannis Myserlis and Andrew Nadolski and Hiroshi Nagai and Neil M. Nagar and Masanori Nakamura and Ramesh Narayan and Gopal Narayanan and Iniyan Natarajan and Antonios Nathanail and Santiago Navarro Fuentes and Joey Neilsen and Roberto Neri and Chunchong Ni and Aristeidis Noutsos and Michael A. Nowak and Junghwan Oh and Hiroki Okino and H{\'e}ctor Olivares and Gisela N. Ortiz-L{\'e}on and Tomoaki Oyama and Feryal {\"O}zel and Daniel C. M. Palumbo and Georgios Filippos Paraschos and Jongho Park and Harriet Parsons and Nimesh Patel and Ue-li Pen and Dominic W. Pesce and Vincent Pi{\'e}tu and Richard L. Plambeck and Aleksandar PopStefanija and Oliver Porth and Felix M. P{\"o}tzl and Ben S. Prather and Jorge A. Preciado-L{\'o}pez and Dimitrios Psaltis and Hung-Yi Pu and Venkatessh Ramakrishnan and Ramprasad Rao and Mark G. Rawlings and Alexander W. Raymond and Luciano Rezzolla and Angelo Ricarte and Bart Ripperda and Freek Roelofs and Alan E. E. Rogers and Eduardo Ros and Cristina Romero-Ca{\~n}izales and Arash Roshanineshat and Helge Rottmann and Alan L. Roy and Ignacio Ruiz and Chester A. Ruszczyk and Kazi L. J. Rygl and Salvador S{\'a}nchez and David S{\'a}nchez-Arg{\"u}elles and Miguel S{\'a}nchez-Portal and Mahito Sasada and Kaushik Satapathy and Tuomas Savolainen and F. P. Schloerb and Jonathan Schonfeld and Karl F. Schuster and Lijing Shao and Zhiqiang 志强 Shen 沈 and Des Small and Bong Won Sohn and Jason SooHoo and Kamal Souccar and He 赫 Sun 孙 and Fumie Tazaki and Alexandra J. Tetarenko and Paul Tiede and Remo P. J. Tilanus and Michael Titus and Pablo Torne and Efthalia Traianou and Tyler Trent and Sascha Trippe and Matthew A. Turk and I. M. van Bemmel and Huib Jan van Langevelde and Daniel R. van Rossum and Jesse Vos and Jan Wagner and Derek Ward-Thompson and J. F. C. Wardle and Jonathan Weintroub and Norbert Wex and Robert S. Wharton and Maciek Wielgus and Kaj Wiik and Gunther Witzel and Michael F. Wondrak and George N. Wong and Qingwen 庆文 Wu 吴 and Paul Yamaguchi and Doosoo Yoon and Andr{\'e} Young and K. H. Young and Ziri Younsi and Feng 峰 Yuan 袁 and Ye-Fei 业 飞 Yuan 袁 and J. Anton Zensus and Shuo Zhang and Guangyao Zhao and Shan-Shan 杉杉 Zhao 赵 and Claudio Agurto and Alexander Allardi and Rodrigo Amestica and Juan Pablo Araneda and Oriel Arriagada and Jennie L. Berghuis and Alessandra Bertarini and Ryan M. Berthold and Jay Blanchard and Kent Masterson Brown and Mauricio C{\'a}rdenas and Michael Cantzler and Patricio Caro and Edgar Castillo-Dom{\'i}nguez and Tin Lok Chan and Chih-Cheng Chang and Dominic O. Chang and Shu-Hao Chang and Song-Chu Chang and Chung-Chen Chen and Ryan Chilson and Timothy C. Chuter and Mirosław Ciechanowicz and Edgar Col{\'i}n-Beltr{\'a}n and Iain M. Coulson and Joseph W. Crowley and Nathalie Degenaar and Sven Dornbusch and Carlos A. Dur{\'a}n and Wendeline B. Everett and Aaron Faber and Karl Forster and Miriam Fuchs and David Michel Gale and Gertie Geertsema and Edouard Gonz{\'a}lez and Dave Graham and Fr'ed'eric Gueth and Nils W. Halverson and Chih-Chiang Han and Kuo-Chang Han and Yutaka Hasegawa and Jos{\'e} Luis Hernandez-Rebollar and Cristian Herrera and Rub{\'e}n Herrero-Illana and Stefan Heyminck and Akihiko Hirota and James Hoge and Shelbi R. Hostler Schimpf and Ryan E. Howie and Yau-De Ted Huang and Homin Jiang and Hao Jinchi and David John and Kimihiro Kimura and Thomas Klein and Derek Y. Kubo and John Kuroda and Caleb Kwon and Richard J. Lacasse and Robert Laing and Erik M. Leitch and Chao-Te Li and Ching Tang Liu and Kuan-Yu Liu and Lupin Chun-Che Lin and Li-Ming Lu and Felipe Mac-Auliffe and Pierre L. Martin-Cocher and Callie Matulonis and John K. Maute and Hugo Messias and Z. Meyer-Zhao and Alfredo Monta{\~n}a and Francisco Montenegro-Montes and William Montgomerie and Marcos Emir Moreno Nolasco and Dirk Muders and Hiroaki Nishioka and Timothy J. Norton and George U. Nystrom and Hideo Ogawa and Rodrigo Olivares and Peter Oshiro and J-P Perez-Beaupuits and Rodrigo Parra and Neil M. Phillips and Michael Poirier and Nicolas Pradel and Richard L.J. Qiu and Philippe Raffin and Alexandra S. Rahlin and Jorge Ram{\'i}rez and Sean M. Ressler and Mark T. Reynolds and Iv{\'a}n Rodr{\'i}guez-Montoya and Alejandro F. Saez-Madain and Jorge Santana and Paul Shaw and Leslie E. Shirkey and Kevin M. Silva and William Parker Snow and Don Sousa and Sridharan T. K. and William Stahm and Anthony A. Stark and John Test and Karl J. E. Torstensson and Paulina Venegas and Craig A. Walther and Tashun Wei and Christopher J. White and Gundolf Wieching and Rudy Wijnands and Jan G. A. Wouterloot and Chen-Yu Yu and Wei Yu (于威) and Milagros Zeballos},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal Letters},
  year={2022},
  volume={930}
}
We present the first Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the Galactic center source associated with a supermassive black hole. These observations were conducted in 2017 using a global interferometric array of eight telescopes operating at a wavelength of λ = 1.3 mm. The EHT data resolve a compact emission region with intrahour variability. A variety of imaging and modeling analyses all support an image that is dominated by a bright, thick ring with a diameter… 

First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Imaging of the Galactic Center Supermassive Black Hole

We present the first event-horizon-scale images and spatiotemporal analysis of Sgr A* taken with the Event Horizon Telescope in 2017 April at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. Imaging of Sgr A* has been

First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. EHT and Multiwavelength Observations, Data Processing, and Calibration

We present Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) 1.3 mm measurements of the radio source located at the position of the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), collected during the 2017 April 5–11

First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. IV. Variability, Morphology, and Black Hole Mass

In this paper we quantify the temporal variability and image morphology of the horizon-scale emission from Sgr A*, as observed by the EHT in 2017 April at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. We find that the Sgr

Constraints on horizonless objects after the EHT observation of Sagittarius A*

The images of Sagittarius A* recently released by the Event Horizon Telescope collaboration have been accompanied [ Astrophys. J. Lett. 930 (2022) L17] by an analysis of the constraints on the

Resolving the Inner Parsec of the Blazar J1924–2914 with the Event Horizon Telescope

The blazar J1924–2914 is a primary Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) calibrator for the Galactic center’s black hole Sagittarius A*. Here we present the first total and linearly polarized intensity

Millimeter Light Curves of Sagittarius A* Observed during the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope Campaign

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observed the compact radio source, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), in the Galactic Center on 2017 April 5–11 in the 1.3 mm wavelength band. At the same time,

Observation of S4716—a Star with a 4 yr Orbit around Sgr A*

The ongoing monitoring of the Galactic center and Sgr A*, the central supermassive black hole, produces surprising and unexpected findings. This goes hand in hand with the technical evolution of

Hunting for extra dimensions in the shadow of Sagittarius A*

Recently, Vagnozzi and Visinelli’s work [Phys. Rev. D 100 , 024020 (2020)] reveals that M87*’s shadow establishes an upper limit of l . 170 AU, where l is the AdS 5 curvature radius and 1 AU is one

Implication of Spin Constraints by the Event Horizon Telescope on Stellar Orbits in the Galactic Center

The center of the Milky Way hosts the closest supermassive black hole, Sgr A*. Decades of near-infrared observations of our Galactic Center have shown the presence of a small population of stars (the

The road toward imaging a black hole: A personal perspective

The images of the supermassive black holes Sgr A* and M87* by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration mark a special milestone in the history of the subject. For the first time we are able to
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First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Imaging of the Galactic Center Supermassive Black Hole

We present the first event-horizon-scale images and spatiotemporal analysis of Sgr A* taken with the Event Horizon Telescope in 2017 April at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. Imaging of Sgr A* has been

First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. EHT and Multiwavelength Observations, Data Processing, and Calibration

We present Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) 1.3 mm measurements of the radio source located at the position of the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), collected during the 2017 April 5–11

First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Testing Astrophysical Models of the Galactic Center Black Hole

In this paper we provide a first physical interpretation for the Event Horizon Telescope's (EHT) 2017 observations of Sgr A*. Our main approach is to compare resolved EHT data at 230 GHz and

First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole

When surrounded by a transparent emission region, black holes are expected to reveal a dark shadow caused by gravitational light bending and photon capture at the event horizon. To image and study

First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Physical Origin of the Asymmetric Ring

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has mapped the central compact radio source of the elliptical galaxy M87 at 1.3 mm with unprecedented angular resolution. Here we consider the physical implications

First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. IV. Variability, Morphology, and Black Hole Mass

In this paper we quantify the temporal variability and image morphology of the horizon-scale emission from Sgr A*, as observed by the EHT in 2017 April at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. We find that the Sgr

Event-horizon-scale structure in the supermassive black hole candidate at the Galactic Centre

TLDR
Observations at a wavelength of 1.3 mm set a size of microarcseconds on the intrinsic diameter of Sagittarius A*, suggesting that the bulk of Sgr A* emission may not be centred on the black hole, but arises in the surrounding accretion flow.

Chandra X-Ray Spectroscopic Imaging of Sagittarius A* and the Central Parsec of the Galaxy

We report the results of the first-epoch observation with the ACIS-I instrument on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the compact radio source associated with the supermassive

First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VII. Polarization of the Ring

In 2017 April, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observed the near-horizon region around the supermassive black hole at the core of the M87 galaxy. These 1.3 mm wavelength observations revealed a

First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. VI. Testing the Black Hole Metric

Astrophysical black holes are expected to be described by the Kerr metric. This is the only stationary, vacuum, axisymmetric metric, without electromagnetic charge, that satisfies Einstein’s
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