First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange

  title={First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange},
  author={Jonathan I. Bloch and Emily D. Woodruff and Aaron R. Wood and Aldo F. Rincon and Arianna R Harrington and Gary S. Morgan and David A. Foster and Camilo Montes and Carlos Jaramillo and Nathan A. Jud and Douglas S. Jones and Bruce J. MacFadden},
New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3–4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from… 

Early Arrival and Climatically-Linked Geographic Expansion of New World Monkeys from Tiny African Ancestors

The results show that platyrrhines originated 5‐10 million years earlier than previously assumed, dating back to the Middle Eocene, and reveal the full evolutionary trajectory of an iconic and ecologically important radiation of monkeys.

A parapithecid stem anthropoid of African origin in the Paleogene of South America

Evidence is reported for a third mammalian lineage of African origin in the Paleogene of South America—a newly discovered genus and species of parapithecid anthropoid primate from Santa Rosa in Amazonian Perú and Bayesian clock–based phylogenetic analysis nests this genus (Ucayalipithecus) deep within the otherwise Afro-Arabian clade Parapithecoidea.

Platyrrhine Monkeys: The Fossil Evidence

  • T. Defler
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Topics in Geobiology
  • 2018
In this chapter I describe how primates might have (and probably did) arrived in South America and just what the conditions would have had to be for the success of such a precarious voyage.

Evolutionary history of New World monkeys revealed by molecular and fossil data

The results show that extant platyrrhines originated some 5–10 million years earlier than previously assumed, likely dating back to the Middle Eocene, and small-sized callitrichines (marmosets and tamarins) retained a small body mass throughout their evolutionary history, thus challenging the hypothesis of phyletic dwarfism as an explanation to their adaptive traits.

The Monkeying of the Americas: Primate Biogeography in the Neotropics*

Neotropical primate biogeography informs taxonomic work and conservation efforts, with a mind toward mitigating effects of direct human impact and human-mediated climate change.

Mammalian Invasion of the Caribbean Islands

  • T. Defler
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Topics in Geobiology
  • 2018
This is a description of the South American fauna (and some that arrived from North America) that populated the Caribbean Islands and how this fauna might have arrived. Fossils tell us a story that

Out of Asia: Anthropoid Origins and the Colonization of Africa

Early anthropoids and certain Asian rodent clades seem to have been especially adept at accomplishing sweepstakes dispersal, particularly during the Eocene, although this process has classically been envisioned as highly random and extremely rare.

Palaeoenvironmental and sea-level change.

  • S. Elton
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2017
Ancient environmental and sea-level changes are very likely to have played key roles in primate speciation, extinction, adaptation, and dispersal. Most modern primates are ecologically dependent on



Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys

The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time

New World monkey origins

The oldest platyrrhine primate is identified at 36 million years ago, with features that suggest links to African anthropoids of similar age, and new fossils reinforce the African rafting source.

Extinct mammalian biodiversity of the ancient New World tropics.

  • B. MacFadden
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Trends in ecology & evolution
  • 2006

An extinct monkey from Haiti and the origins of the Greater Antillean primates

A new extinct Late Quaternary platyrrhine from Haiti, Insulacebus toussaintiana, is described here from the most complete Caribbean subfossil primate dentition yet recorded, demonstrating the likely

Platyrrhine Ecophylogenetics in Space and Time

We are far from developing an informed synthesis regarding the evolution of New World Monkeys – probably decades away. For even with the important strides made over the past 30–40 years regarding

Macroevolutionary Dynamics and Historical Biogeography of Primate Diversification Inferred from a Species Supermatrix

A robust molecular phylogeny for 70 primate genera and 367 primate species is generated based on a concatenation of 69 nuclear gene segments and ten mitochondrial gene sequences, most of which were extracted from GenBank to find support for the hypothesis that the most recent common ancestor of living Primates resided in Asia.

Lower Miocene Stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and Its Bearing on the Central American Peninsula

The new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a peninsula connected to northern Central America and North America for much of the Miocene, which has profound implications for the understanding of the tectonic, climatic, oceanographic and biogeographic history related to the formation of the Isthmus of Panama.

The origin of platyrrhines: An evaluation of the Antarctic scenario and the floating island model.

  • A. Houle
  • Environmental Science
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1999
This paper evaluates whether protoplatyrrhines could have migrated to South America via Antarctica, and the floating island model is a plausible transoceanic mode of dispersal for land vertebrates like protoplateyrrhine, and whether a journey on a hypothetical floating island over the Paleogene Atlantic Ocean exceeds the survival limit.

New Early Miocene Protoceratids (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from Panama

ABSTRACT Although Cenozoic protoceratid artiodactyls are known from throughout North America, species referred to the Miocene protoceratine Paratoceras are restricted to subtropical areas of the Gulf