First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VI. The Shadow and Mass of the Central Black Hole

  title={First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VI. The Shadow and Mass of the Central Black Hole},
  author={Kazunori Akiyama and Antxon Alberdi and Walter Alef and Keiichi Asada and Rebecca Azulay and Anne-Kathrin Baczko and David Ball and Mislav Balokovi{\'c} and John Barrett and Dan Bintley and Lindy L. Blackburn and Wilfred Boland and Katherine L. Bouman and Geoff C. Bower and Michael Bremer and Christiaan D. Brinkerink and Roger Brissenden and Silke Britzen and Avery E. Broderick and Dominique Broguiere and Thomas Bronzwaer and Do-young Byun and John E. Carlstrom and Andrew Chael and Chi-kwan Chan and Shami Chatterjee and Koushik Chatterjee and Ming-Tang Chen and Yongjun 永 军 Chen 陈 and Ilje Cho and Pierre Christian and John E. Conway and James M. Cordes and Geoffrey B. Crew and Yuzhu Cui and Jordy Davelaar and Mariafelicia De Laurentis and Roger Deane and Jessica Dempsey and Gregory Desvignes and Jason Dexter and Sheperd S. Doeleman and Ralph P. Eatough and Heino Falcke and Vincent L. Fish and Edward B. Fomalont and Raquel Fraga-Encinas and Per Friberg and Christian M. Fromm and Jos{\'e} L. G{\'o}mez and Peter Galison and Charles F. Gammie and Roberto Garc{\'i}a and Olivier Gentaz and Boris Georgiev and Ciriaco Goddi and Roman Gold and Minfeng 敏峰 Gu 顾 and Mark A. Gurwell and Kazuhiro Hada and Michael H. Hecht and Ronald Hesper and Luis C. 子山 Ho 何 and Paul T. P. Ho and Mareki Honma and Chih-Wei L. Huang and Lei 磊 Huang 黄 and David H. Hughes and Shiro Ikeda and Makoto Inoue and Sara Issaoun and David J. James and Buell T. Jannuzi and Michael Janssen and Britton Jeter and Wu 悟 Jiang 江 and Michael D. Johnson and Svetlana G. Jorstad and Taehyun Jung and Mansour Karami and Ramesh Karuppusamy and Tomohisa Kawashima and Garrett K. Keating and Mark Kettenis and Jae-Young Kim and Junhan Kim and Jongsoo Kim and Motoki Kino and Jun Yi Koay and Patrick M. Koch and Shoko Koyama and Michael Kramer and Carsten Kramer and Thomas P. Krichbaum and C. Y. Kuo and Tod R. Lauer and Sang-Sung Lee and Yan-Rong 彦荣 Li 李 and Zhiyuan 志远 Li 李 and Michael Lindqvist and Kuo Liu and Elisabetta Liuzzo and Wen-Ping Lo and Andrei P. Lobanov and Laurent Loinard and Colin J. Lonsdale and Ru-Sen 如森 Lu 路 and Nicholas R. MacDonald and Jirong 基荣 Mao 毛 and Sera B. Markoff and Daniel P. Marrone and Alan P. Marscher and Iv{\'a}n Mart{\'i}-Vidal and Satoki Matsushita and Lynn D. Matthews and Lia Medeiros and Karl M. Menten and Yosuke Mizuno and Izumi Mizuno and James M. Moran and Kotaro Moriyama and Monika Mościbrodzka and Cornelia M{\"u}ller and Hiroshi Nagai and Neil M. Nagar and Masanori Nakamura and Ramesh Narayan and Gopal Narayanan and Iniyan Natarajan and Roberto Neri and Chunchong Ni and Aristeidis Noutsos and Hiroki Okino and H{\'e}ctor Olivares and Tomoaki Oyama and Feryal {\"O}zel and Daniel C. M. Palumbo and Nimesh Patel and Ue-li Pen and Dominic W. Pesce and Vincent Pi{\'e}tu and Richard L. Plambeck and Aleksandar PopStefanija and Oliver Porth and Ben S. Prather and Jorge A. Preciado-L{\'o}pez and Dimitrios Psaltis and Hung-Yi Pu and Venkatessh Ramakrishnan and Ramprasad Rao and Mark G. Rawlings and Alexander W. Raymond and Luciano Rezzolla and Bart Ripperda and Freek Roelofs and Alan E. E. Rogers and Eduardo Ros and Mel Rose and Arash Roshanineshat and Helge Rottmann and Alan L. Roy and Chester A. Ruszczyk and Benjamin R. Ryan and Kazi L. J. Rygl and Salvador S{\'a}nchez and David S{\'a}nchez-Arguelles and Mahito Sasada and Tuomas Savolainen and F. P. Schloerb and Karl F. Schuster and Lijing Shao and Zhiqiang 志强 Shen 沈 and Des Small and Bong Won Sohn and Jason SooHoo and Fumie Tazaki and Paul Tiede and Remo P. J. Tilanus and Michael Titus and Kenji Toma and Pablo Torne and Tyler Trent and Sascha Trippe and Shuichi Tsuda and I. M. van Bemmel and Huib Jan van Langevelde and Daniel R. van Rossum and Jan Wagner and J. F. C. Wardle and Jonathan Weintroub and Norbert Wex and Robert S. Wharton and Maciek Wielgus and George N. Wong and Qingwen 庆文 Wu 吴 and Andr{\'e} Young and K. H. Young and Ziri Younsi and Feng 峰 Yuan 袁 and Ye-Fei 业 飞 Yuan 袁 and J. Anton Zensus and Guangyao Zhao and Shan-Shan Zhao and Ziyan Zhu and Joseph R. Farah and Z. Meyer-Zhao and Daniel Michalik and Andrew Nadolski and Hiroaki Nishioka and Nicolas Pradel and Rurik A. Primiani and Kamal Souccar and Laura Vertatschitsch and Paul Yamaguchi},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal Letters},
We present measurements of the properties of the central radio source in M87 using Event Horizon Telescope data obtained during the 2017 campaign. We develop and fit geometric crescent models (asymmetric rings with interior brightness depressions) using two independent sampling algorithms that consider distinct representations of the visibility data. We show that the crescent family of models is statistically preferred over other comparably complex geometric models that we explore. We calibrate… 

First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole

When surrounded by a transparent emission region, black holes are expected to reveal a dark shadow caused by gravitational light bending and photon capture at the event horizon. To image and study

First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VII. Polarization of the Ring

In 2017 April, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observed the near-horizon region around the supermassive black hole at the core of the M87 galaxy. These 1.3 mm wavelength observations revealed a

Hybrid Mapping of the Black Hole Shadow in M87

We present a reanalysis of the Event Horizon Telescope 228 GHz observations of M87. We apply traditional hybrid mapping techniques to the publicly available network-calibrated data. We explore the

The Jet and Resolved Features of the Central Supermassive Black Hole of M87 Observed with the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT)

We report the result of our independent image reconstruction of the M87 from the public data of the Event Horizon Telescope Collaborators (EHTC). Our result is different from the image published by

The Photon Ring in M87*

We report measurements of the gravitationally lensed secondary image—the first in an infinite series of so-called “photon rings”—around the supermassive black hole M87* via simultaneous modeling and

First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole in the Center of the Milky Way

We present the first Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the Galactic center source associated with a supermassive black hole. These observations were conducted in

First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. IV. Variability, Morphology, and Black Hole Mass

In this paper we quantify the temporal variability and image morphology of the horizon-scale emission from Sgr A*, as observed by the EHT in 2017 April at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. We find that the Sgr

First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Imaging of the Galactic Center Supermassive Black Hole

We present the first event-horizon-scale images and spatiotemporal analysis of Sgr A* taken with the Event Horizon Telescope in 2017 April at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. Imaging of Sgr A* has been

Separating astrophysics and geometry in black hole images

The observation of the shadow of the supermassive black hole M87 ∗ by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is sensitive to the spacetime geometry near the circular photon orbit and beyond, and it thus

The Variability of the Black Hole Image in M87 at the Dynamical Timescale

The black hole images obtained with the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) are expected to be variable at the dynamical timescale near their horizons. For the black hole at the center of the M87 galaxy,



First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Physical Origin of the Asymmetric Ring

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has mapped the central compact radio source of the elliptical galaxy M87 at 1.3 mm with unprecedented angular resolution. Here we consider the physical implications

A geometric crescent model for black hole images

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global very long baseline interferometry array operating at millimetre wavelengths, is spatially resolving the immediate environments of black holes for the first

Toward the event horizon—the supermassive black hole in the Galactic Center

The center of our Galaxy hosts the best constrained supermassive black hole in the universe, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). Its mass and distance have been accurately determined from stellar orbits and

The size of the jet launching region in M87

The supermassive black hole candidate at the centre of M87 drives an ultra-relativistic jet visible on kiloparsec scales, and its large mass and relative proximity allow for event horizon scale


We present the stellar kinematics in the central 2″ of the luminous elliptical galaxy M87 (NGC 4486), using laser adaptive optics to feed the Gemini telescope integral-field spectrograph,


The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a millimeter-wavelength, very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment that is capable of observing black holes with horizon-scale resolution. Early

Imaging the Schwarzschild-radius-scale Structure of M87 with the Event Horizon Telescope Using Sparse Modeling

We propose a new imaging technique for radio and optical/infrared interferometry. The proposed technique reconstructs the image from the visibility amplitude and closure phase, which are standard

Reconstruction of Static Black Hole Images Using Simple Geometric Forms

General Relativity predicts that the emission close to a black hole must be lensed by its strong gravitational field, illuminating the last photon orbit. This results in a dark circular area known as


The silhouette cast by the horizon of the supermassive black hole in M87 can now be resolved with the emerging millimeter very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) capability. Despite being ∼2 × 103

Evidence for a supermassive object in the nucleus of the galaxy M87 from SIT and CCD area photometry.

Two-dimensional SIT and CCD detectors have been used to measure the surface brightness of the peculiar elliptical radio galaxy M87. Measurements were made in three broad-band colors (B, V, and R) to