First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. IV. Imaging the Central Supermassive Black Hole

@article{Akiyama2019FirstME,
  title={First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. IV. Imaging the Central Supermassive Black Hole},
  author={Kazunori Akiyama and Antxon Alberdi and Walter Alef and Keiichi Asada and Rebecca Azulay and Anne-Kathrin Baczko and David Ball and Mislav Balokovi{\'c} and John Barrett and Dan Bintley and Lindy Blackburn and Wilfred Boland and Katherine L. Bouman and Geoffrey C. Bower and Michael Bremer and Christiaan D. Brinkerink and Roger Brissenden and Silke Britzen and Avery E. Broderick and Dominique Broguiere and Thomas Bronzwaer and Do-Young Byun and John E. Carlstrom and Andrew Chael and Chi-kwan Chan and Shami Chatterjee and Koushik Chatterjee and Ming-Tang Chen and Yongjun Chen and Ilje Cho and Pierre Christian and John E. Conway and James M. Cordes and Geoffrey B. Crew and Yuzhu Cui and Jordy Davelaar and Mariafelicia De Laurentis and Roger Deane and Jessica Dempsey and Gregory Desvignes and Jason Dexter and Sheperd S. Doeleman and Ralph P. Eatough and Heino Falcke and Vincent L. Fish and Edward B. Fomalont and Raquel Fraga-Encinas and William T. Freeman and Per Friberg and Christian M. Fromm and Jos{\'e} L. G{\'o}mez and Peter Galison and Charles F. Gammie and Roberto Garc{\'i}a and Olivier Gentaz and Boris Georgiev and Ciriaco Goddi and Roman Gold and Minfeng Gu and Mark A. Gurwell and Kazuhiro Hada and Michael H. Hecht and Ronald Hesper and Luis C. Ho and Paul T. P. Ho and Mareki Honma and Chih-Wei L. Huang and Lei Huang and David H. Hughes and Shiro Ikeda and Makoto Inoue and Sara Issaoun and David J. James and Buell T. Jannuzi and Michael Janssen and Britton Jeter and Wu Jiang and Michael D. Johnson and Svetlana G. Jorstad and Taehyun Jung and Mansour Karami and Ramesh Karuppusamy and Tomohisa Kawashima and Garrett K. Keating and Mark Kettenis and Jae-Young Kim and Junhan Kim and Jongsoo Kim and Motoki Kino and Jun Yi Koay and Patrick M. Koch and Shoko Koyama and Michael Kramer and Carsten Kramer and Thomas P. Krichbaum and Cheng-Yu Kuo and Tod R. Lauer and Sang-Sung Lee and Yan-Rong Li and Zhiyuan Li and Michael Lindqvist and Kuo Liu and Elisabetta Liuzzo and Wen-Ping Lo and Andrei P. Lobanov and Laurent Loinard and Colin J. Lonsdale and Ru-Sen Lu and Nicholas R. MacDonald and Jirong Mao and Sera B. Markoff and Daniel P. Marrone and Alan P. Marscher and Iv{\'a}n Mart{\'i}-Vidal and Satoki Matsushita and Lynn D. Matthews and Lia Medeiros and Karl M. Menten and Yosuke Mizuno and Izumi Mizuno and James M. Moran and Kotaro Moriyama and Monika Mościbrodzka and Cornelia M{\"u}ller and Hiroshi Nagai and Neil M. Nagar and Masanori Nakamura and Ramesh Narayan and Gopal Narayanan and Iniyan Natarajan and Roberto Neri and Chunchong Ni and Aristeidis Noutsos and Hiroki Okino and H{\'e}ctor Olivares and Tomoaki Oyama and Feryal {\"O}zel and Daniel C. M. Palumbo and Nimesh Patel and Ue-li Pen and Dominic W. Pesce and Vincent Pi{\'e}tu and Richard Plambeck and Aleksandar PopStefanija and Oliver Porth and Ben S. Prather and Jorge A. Preciado-L{\'o}pez and Dimitrios Psaltis and Hung-Yi Pu and Venkatessh Ramakrishnan and Ramprasad Rao and Mark G. Rawlings and Alexander W. Raymond and Luciano Rezzolla and Bart Ripperda and Freek Roelofs and Alan E. E. Rogers and Eduardo Ros and Mel Rose and Arash Roshanineshat and Helge Rottmann and Alan L. Roy and Chester A. Ruszczyk and Benjamin R. Ryan and Kazi L. J. Rygl and Salvador S{\'a}nchez and David S{\'a}nchez-Arguelles and Mahito Sasada and Tuomas Savolainen and F. P. Schloerb and Karl F. Schuster and Lijing Shao and Zhiqiang Shen and Des Small and Bong Won Sohn and Jason SooHoo and Fumie Tazaki and Paul Tiede and Remo P. J. Tilanus and Michael Titus and Kenji Toma and Pablo Torne and Tyler Trent and Sascha Trippe and Shuichi Tsuda and I. M. van Bemmel and Huib Jan van Langevelde and Daniel R. van Rossum and Jan Wagner and J. F. C. Wardle and Jonathan Weintroub and Norbert Wex and Robert S. Wharton and Maciek Wielgus and George N. Wong and Qingwen Wu and Andr{\'e} Young and Ken Young and Ziri Younsi and Fenge Yuan and Ye-Fei Yuan and J. Anton Zensus and Guangyao Zhao and Shan-Shan Zhao and Ziyan Zhu and Joseph R. Farah and Z. Meyer-Zhao and Daniel Michalik and Andrew Nadolski and Hiroaki Nishioka and Nicolas Pradel and Rurik A. Primiani and Kamal Souccar and Laura Vertatschitsch and Paul Yamaguchi},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2019}
}
We present the first Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) images of M87, using observations from April 2017 at 1.3 mm wavelength. These images show a prominent ring with a diameter of ~40 μas, consistent with the size and shape of the lensed photon orbit encircling the "shadow" of a supermassive black hole. The ring is persistent across four observing nights and shows enhanced brightness in the south. To assess the reliability of these results, we implemented a two-stage imaging procedure. In the… 
First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole
When surrounded by a transparent emission region, black holes are expected to reveal a dark shadow caused by gravitational light bending and photon capture at the event horizon. To image and study
First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VI. The Shadow and Mass of the Central Black Hole
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Broadband Multi-wavelength Properties of M87 during the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope Campaign
In 2017, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration succeeded in capturing the first direct image of the center of the M87 galaxy. The asymmetric ring morphology and size are consistent with
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In 2017 April, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observed the near-horizon region around the supermassive black hole at the core of the M87 galaxy. These 1.3 mm wavelength observations revealed a
Hybrid Mapping of the Black Hole Shadow in M87
We present a reanalysis of the Event Horizon Telescope 228 GHz observations of M87. We apply traditional hybrid mapping techniques to the publicly available network-calibrated data. We explore the
Monitoring the Morphology of M87* in 2009–2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has recently delivered the first resolved images of M87*, the supermassive black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy. These images were produced using 230 GHz
First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole in the Center of the Milky Way
We present the first Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the Galactic center source associated with a supermassive black hole. These observations were conducted in
First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration
We present the calibration and reduction of Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) 1.3 mm radio wavelength observations of the supermassive black hole candidate at the center of the radio galaxy M87 and the
The Jet and Resolved Features of the Central Supermassive Black Hole of M87 Observed with the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT)
We report the result of our independent image reconstruction of the M87 from the public data of the Event Horizon Telescope Collaborators (EHTC). Our result is different from the image published by
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References

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First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole
When surrounded by a transparent emission region, black holes are expected to reveal a dark shadow caused by gravitational light bending and photon capture at the event horizon. To image and study
First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VI. The Shadow and Mass of the Central Black Hole
We present measurements of the properties of the central radio source in M87 using Event Horizon Telescope data obtained during the 2017 campaign. We develop and fit geometric crescent models
First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Physical Origin of the Asymmetric Ring
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has mapped the central compact radio source of the elliptical galaxy M87 at 1.3 mm with unprecedented angular resolution. Here we consider the physical implications
First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration
We present the calibration and reduction of Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) 1.3 mm radio wavelength observations of the supermassive black hole candidate at the center of the radio galaxy M87 and the
Imaging the Schwarzschild-radius-scale Structure of M87 with the Event Horizon Telescope Using Sparse Modeling
We propose a new imaging technique for radio and optical/infrared interferometry. The proposed technique reconstructs the image from the visibility amplitude and closure phase, which are standard
First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array that comprises millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength telescopes separated by distances comparable to the
High Resolution Linear Polarimetric Imaging for the Event Horizon Telescope
Images of the linear polarization of synchrotron radiation around Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) identify their projected magnetic field lines and provide key data for understanding the physics of
The inner halo of M 87: a first direct view of the red-giant population
An unusually deep (V, I) imaging dataset for the Virgo supergiant M 87 with the Hubble Space Telescope ACS successfully resolves its brightest red-giant stars, reaching M I (lim) = ―2.5. After
HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Observations of Superluminal Motion in the M87 Jet
We present observations of the M87 jet made with the Faint Object Camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope at five epochs between 1994 and 1998. These observations reveal 10 superluminal features
meqsilhouette: a mm-VLBI observation and signal corruption simulator
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) aims to spatially resolve the silhouette (or shadow) of the supermassive black holes in the Galactic Centre (Sgr A$^\star$) and M87. The primary scientific
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