First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration

@article{Akiyama2019FirstME,
  title={First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration},
  author={Kazunori Akiyama and Antxon Alberdi and Walter Alef and Keiichi Asada and Rebecca Azulay and Anne-Kathrin Baczko and David Ball and Mislav Balokovi{\'c} and John Barrett and Dan Bintley and Lindy L. Blackburn and Wilfred Boland and Katherine L. Bouman and Geoffrey C. Bower and Michael Bremer and Christiaan D. Brinkerink and Roger Brissenden and Silke Britzen and Avery E. Broderick and Dominique Broguiere and Thomas Bronzwaer and Do-young Byun and John E. Carlstrom and Andrew Chael and Chi-kwan Chan and Shami Chatterjee and Koushik Chatterjee and Ming-Tang Chen and Yongjun 永 军 Chen 陈 and Ilje Cho and Pierre Christian and John E. Conway and James M. Cordes and Geoffrey B. Crew and Yuzhu Cui and Jordy Davelaar and Mariafelicia De Laurentis and Roger Deane and Jessica Dempsey and Gregory Desvignes and Jason Dexter and Sheperd S. Doeleman and Ralph P. Eatough and Heino Falcke and Vincent L. Fish and Edward B. Fomalont and Raquel Fraga-Encinas and Per Friberg and Christian M. Fromm and Jos{\'e} L. G{\'o}mez and Peter Galison and Charles F. Gammie and Roberto Garc{\'i}a and Olivier Gentaz and Boris Georgiev and Ciriaco Goddi and Roman Gold and Minfeng 敏峰 Gu 顾 and Mark A. Gurwell and Kazuhiro Hada and Michael H. Hecht and Ronald Hesper and Luis C. 子山 Ho 何 and Paul T. P. Ho and Mareki Honma and Chih-Wei L. Huang and Lei 磊 Huang 黄 and David H. Hughes and Shiro Ikeda and Makoto Inoue and Sara Issaoun and David J. James and Buell T. Jannuzi and Michael Janssen and Britton Jeter and Wu 悟 Jiang 江 and Michael D. Johnson and Svetlana G. Jorstad and Taehyun Jung and Mansour Karami and Ramesh Karuppusamy and Tomohisa Kawashima and Garrett K. Keating and Mark Kettenis and Jae-Young Kim and Junhan Kim and Jongsoo Kim and Motoki Kino and Jun Yi Koay and Patrick M. Koch and Shoko Koyama and Michael Kramer and Carsten Kramer and Thomas P. Krichbaum and C. Y. Kuo and Tod R. Lauer and Sang-Sung Lee and Yan-Rong 彦荣 Li 李 and Zhiyuan 志远 Li 李 and Michael Lindqvist and Kuo Liu and Elisabetta Liuzzo and W. Lo and Andrei P. Lobanov and Laurent Loinard and Colin J. Lonsdale and Ru-Sen 如森 Lu 路 and Nicholas R. MacDonald and Jirong 基荣 Mao 毛 and Sera B. Markoff and Daniel P. Marrone and Alan P. Marscher and Iv{\'a}n Mart{\'i}-Vidal and Satoki Matsushita and Lynn D. Matthews and Lia Medeiros and Karl M. Menten and Yosuke Mizuno and Izumi Mizuno and James M. Moran and Kotaro Moriyama and Monika A. Mościbrodzka and Cornelia M{\"u}ller and Hiroshi Nagai and Neil M. Nagar and Masanori Nakamura and Ramesh Narayan and Gopal Narayanan and Iniyan Natarajan and Roberto Neri and Chunchong Ni and Aristeidis Noutsos and Hiroki Okino and H{\'e}ctor Olivares and Gisela N. Ortiz-L{\'e}on and Tomoaki Oyama and Feryal {\"O}zel and Daniel C. M. Palumbo and Nimesh A. Patel and Ue-li Pen and Dominic W. Pesce and Vincent Pi{\'e}tu and Richard L. Plambeck and Aleksandar PopStefanija and Oliver Porth and Ben S. Prather and Jorge A. Preciado-L{\'o}pez and Dimitrios Psaltis and Hung-Yi Pu and Venkatessh Ramakrishnan and Ramprasad Rao and Mark G. Rawlings and Alexander W. Raymond and Luciano Rezzolla and Bart Ripperda and Freek Roelofs and Alan E. E. Rogers and Eduardo Ros and Mel Rose and Arash Roshanineshat and Helge Rottmann and Alan L. Roy and Chester A. Ruszczyk and Benjamin R. Ryan and Kazi L. J. Rygl and Salvador S{\'a}nchez and David S{\'a}nchez-Arguelles and Mahito Sasada and Tuomas Savolainen and F. P. Schloerb and Karl F. Schuster and Lijing Shao and Zhiqiang 志强 Shen 沈 and Des Small and Bong Won Sohn and Jason SooHoo and Fumie Tazaki and Paul Tiede and Remo P. J. Tilanus and Michael Titus and Kenji Toma and Pablo Torne and Tyler Trent and Sascha Trippe and Shuichi Tsuda and Ilse M. van Bemmel and Huib Jan van Langevelde and Daniel R. van Rossum and Jan Wagner and J. F. C. Wardle and Jonathan Weintroub and Norbert Wex and Robert S. Wharton and Maciek Wielgus and George N. Wong and Qingwen 庆文 Wu 吴 and Andr{\'e} Young and K. H. Young and Ziri Younsi and Feng 峰 Yuan 袁 and Ye-Fei 业 飞 Yuan 袁 and J. Anton Zensus and Guangyao Zhao and Shan-Shan Zhao and Ziyan Zhu and Roger C. Cappallo and Joseph R. Farah and Thomas W. Folkers and Z. Meyer-Zhao and Daniel Michalik and Andrew Nadolski and Hiroaki Nishioka and Nicolas Pradel and Rurik A. Primiani and Kamal Souccar and Laura Vertatschitsch and Paul Yamaguchi},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal Letters},
  year={2019},
  volume={875}
}
We present the calibration and reduction of Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) 1.3 mm radio wavelength observations of the supermassive black hole candidate at the center of the radio galaxy M87 and the quasar 3C 279, taken during the 2017 April 5–11 observing campaign. These global very long baseline interferometric observations include for the first time the highly sensitive Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA); reaching an angular resolution of 25 μas, with characteristic… 

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First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Imaging of the Galactic Center Supermassive Black Hole

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First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VII. Polarization of the Ring

In 2017 April, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observed the near-horizon region around the supermassive black hole at the core of the M87 galaxy. These 1.3 mm wavelength observations revealed a

An Event Horizon Imager (EHI) Mission Concept Utilizing Medium Earth Orbit Sub-mm Interferometry

Submillimeter interferometry has the potential to image supermassive black holes on event horizon scales, providing tests of the theory of general relativity and increasing our understanding of black

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First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. II. Array and Instrumentation

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array that comprises millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength telescopes separated by distances comparable to the

First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. IV. Imaging the Central Supermassive Black Hole

We present the first Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) images of M87, using observations from April 2017 at 1.3 mm wavelength. These images show a prominent ring with a diameter of ∼40 μas, consistent

High Resolution Linear Polarimetric Imaging for the Event Horizon Telescope

Images of the linear polarizations of synchrotron radiation around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) highlight their projected magnetic field lines and provide key data for understanding the physics of

First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VI. The Shadow and Mass of the Central Black Hole

We present measurements of the properties of the central radio source in M87 using Event Horizon Telescope data obtained during the 2017 campaign. We develop and fit geometric crescent models

First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Physical Origin of the Asymmetric Ring

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has mapped the central compact radio source of the elliptical galaxy M87 at 1.3 mm with unprecedented angular resolution. Here we consider the physical implications

First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole

When surrounded by a transparent emission region, black holes are expected to reveal a dark shadow caused by gravitational light bending and photon capture at the event horizon. To image and study

Detection of Intrinsic Source Structure at ∼3 Schwarzschild Radii with Millimeter-VLBI Observations of SAGITTARIUS A*

We report results from very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations of the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center, Sgr A*, at 1.3 mm (230 GHz). The observations were performed in

R2DBE: A Wideband Digital Backend for the Event Horizon Telescope

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is an earth-size aperture synthesis radio astronomy array capable of making high-resolution measurements of submillimeter emission near the event horizon of

230 GHz VLBI OBSERVATIONS OF M87: EVENT‐HORIZON‐SCALE STRUCTURE DURING AN ENHANCED VERY‐HIGH‐ENERGY γ ?> ‐RAY STATE IN 2012

We report on 230 GHz (1.3 mm) very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of M87 with the Event Horizon Telescope using antennas on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, Mt. Graham in Arizona, and Cedar

Persistent Asymmetric Structure of Sagittarius A* on Event Horizon Scales

The Galactic Center black hole Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) is a prime observing target for the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), which can resolve the 1.3 mm emission from this source on angular scales
...