First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole

  title={First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole},
  author={Kazunori Akiyama and Antxon Alberdi and Walter Alef and Keiichi Asada and Rebecca Azulay and Anne-Kathrin Baczko and David Ball and Mislav Balokovi{\'c} and John Barrett and Dan Bintley and Lindy L. Blackburn and Wilfred Boland and Katherine L. Bouman and Geoffrey C. Bower and Michael Bremer and Christiaan D. Brinkerink and Roger Brissenden and Silke Britzen and Avery E. Broderick and Dominique Broguiere and Thomas Bronzwaer and Do-young Byun and John E. Carlstrom and Andrew Chael and Chi-kwan Chan and Shami Chatterjee and Koushik Chatterjee and Ming-Tang Chen and Yongjun Chen and Ilje Cho and Pierre Christian and John Conway and James M. Cordes and Geoffrey B. Crew and Yuzhu Cui and Jordy Davelaar and Mariafelicia De Laurentis and Roger Deane and Jessica Dempsey and Gregory Desvignes and Jason Dexter and Sheperd S. Doeleman and Ralph P. Eatough and Heino Falcke and Vincent L. Fish and Edward B. Fomalont and Raquel Fraga-Encinas and William T. Freeman and Per Friberg and Christian M. Fromm and Jos{\'e} L. G{\'o}mez and Peter Galison and Charles F. Gammie and Roberto Garc{\'i}a and Olivier Gentaz and Boris Georgiev and Ciriaco Goddi and Roman Gold and Minfeng Gu and Mark A. Gurwell and Kazuhiro Hada and Michael H. Hecht and Ronald Hesper and Luis C. Ho and Paul T. P. Ho and Mareki Honma and Chih-Wei L. Huang and Lei Huang and David H. Hughes and Shiro Ikeda and Makoto Inoue and Sara Issaoun and David J. James and Buell T. Jannuzi and Michael Janssen and Britton Jeter and Wu Jiang and Michael D. Johnson and Svetlana G. Jorstad and Taehyun Jung and Mansour Karami and Ramesh Karuppusamy and Tomohisa Kawashima and Garrett K. Keating and Mark Kettenis and Jae-Young Kim and Junhan Kim and Jongsoo Kim and Motoki Kino and Jun Yi Koay and Patrick M. Koch and Shoko Koyama and Michael Kramer and Carsten Kramer and Thomas P. Krichbaum and C. Y. Kuo and Tod R. Lauer and Sang-Sung Lee and Yan-Rong Li and Zhiyuan Li and Michael Lindqvist and Kuo Liu and Elisabetta Liuzzo and Wen-Ping Lo and Andrei P. Lobanov and Laurent Loinard and Colin J. Lonsdale and Ru-Sen Lu and Nicholas R. MacDonald and Jirong Mao and Sera B. Markoff and Daniel P. Marrone and Alan P. Marscher and Iv{\'a}n Mart{\'i}-Vidal and Satoki Matsushita and Lynn D. Matthews and Lia Medeiros and Karl M. Menten and Yosuke Mizuno and Izumi Mizuno and James M. Moran and Kotaro Moriyama and Monika Mościbrodzka and Cornelia M{\"u}ller and Hiroshi Nagai and Neil M. Nagar and Masanori Nakamura and Ramesh Narayan and Gopal Narayanan and Iniyan Natarajan and Roberto Neri and Chunchong Ni and Aristeidis Noutsos and Hiroki Okino and H{\'e}ctor Olivares and Gisela N. Ortiz-L{\'e}on and Tomoaki Oyama and F. Ozel and Daniel C. M. Palumbo and Nimesh Patel and Ue-li Pen and Dominic W. Pesce and Vincent Pi{\'e}tu and Richard L. Plambeck and Aleksandar PopStefanija and Oliver Porth and Ben S. Prather and Jorge A. Preciado-L{\'o}pez and Dimitrios Psaltis and Hung-Yi Pu and Venkatessh Ramakrishnan and Ramprasad Rao and Mark G. Rawlings and Alexander W. Raymond and Luciano Rezzolla and Bart Ripperda and Freek Roelofs and Alan E. E. Rogers and Eduardo Ros and Mel Rose and Arash Roshanineshat and Helge Rottmann and Alan L. Roy and Chester A. Ruszczyk and Benjamin R. Ryan and Kazi L. J. Rygl and Salvador S{\'a}nchez and David S{\'a}nchez-Arguelles and Mahito Sasada and Tuomas Savolainen and F. P. Schloerb and Karl F. Schuster and Lijing Shao and Zhi-qiang Shen and Des Small and Bong Won Sohn and Jason SooHoo and Fumie Tazaki and Paul Tiede and Remo P. J. Tilanus and Michael Titus and Kenji Toma and Pablo Torne and Tyler Trent and Sascha Trippe and Shuichi Tsuda and Ilse van Bemmel and Huib Jan van Langevelde and Daniel R. van Rossum and Jan Wagner and J. F. C. Wardle and Jonathan Weintroub and Norbert Wex and Robert S. Wharton and Maciek Wielgus and George N. Wong and Qingwen Wu and K. H. Young and Andr{\'e} Young and Ziri Younsi and Fenge Yuan and Ye-Fei Yuan and J. Anton Zensus and Guangyao Zhao and Shan-Shan Zhao and Ziyan Zhu and Juan Carlos Algaba and Alexander Allardi and Rodrigo Amestica and Jadyn Anczarski and Uwe Bach and Frederick K. Baganoff and Christopher Beaudoin and Bradford A. Benson and Ryan M. Berthold and Jay Blanchard and Raymond Blundell and Sandra Bustamente and Roger J. Cappallo and Edgar Castillo-Dom{\'i}nguez and Chih-Cheng Chang and Shu-Hao Chang and Song-Chu Chang and Chung-Chen Chen and Ryan Chilson and Timothy C. Chuter and Rodrigo C{\'o}rdova Rosado and Iain M. Coulson and Thomas M. Crawford and Joseph W. Crowley and John David and Mark Derome and Matt Dexter and Sven Dornbusch and Kevin A. Dudevoir and Sergio A. Dzib and Andreas Eckart and Chris Eckert and Neal Erickson and Wendeline B. Everett and Aaron Faber and Joseph R. Farah and Vernon Fath and Thomas W. Folkers and David C. Forbes and Robert W. Freund and Arturo I. G{\'o}mez-Ruiz and David Michel Gale and Feng Gao and Gertie Geertsema and David A. Graham and Christopher H. Greer and Ronald Grosslein and Fr'ed'eric Gueth and Daryl Haggard and Nils W. Halverson and Chih-Chiang Han and Kuo-Chang Han and Jinchi Hao and Yutaka Hasegawa and Jason W. Henning and Antonio Hern{\'a}ndez-G{\'o}mez and Rub{\'e}n Herrero-Illana and Stefan Heyminck and Akihiko Hirota and James Hoge and Yau-De Ted Huang and C. M. Violette Impellizzeri and Homin Jiang and Atish Kamble and Ryan Keisler and Kimihiro Kimura and Yusuke Kono and Derek Y. Kubo and John Kuroda and Richard J. Lacasse and Robert Laing and Erik M. Leitch and Chao-Te Li and Lupin Chun-Che Lin and Ching Tang Liu and Kuan-Yu Liu and Li-Ming Lu and Ralph G. Marson and Pierre L. Martin-Cocher and Kyle D. Massingill and Callie Matulonis and Martin P. McColl and Stephen R. McWhirter and Hugo Messias and Z. Meyer-Zhao and Daniel Michalik and Alfredo Monta{\~n}a and William Montgomerie and Matias Mora-Klein and Dirk Muders and Andrew Nadolski and Santiago Navarro and Joey Neilsen and Chi H. Nguyen and Hiroaki Nishioka and Timothy J. Norton and Michael A. Nowak and George U. Nystrom and Hideo Ogawa and Peter Oshiro and Harriet Parsons and Scott N. Paine and Juan Pe{\~n}alver and Neil M. Phillips and Michael Poirier and Nicolas Pradel and Rurik A. Primiani and Philippe Raffin and Alexandra S. Rahlin and George P. Reiland and Christophe Risacher and Ignacio Ruiz and Alejandro F. Saez-Madain and Remi Sassella and Pim Schellart and Paul Shaw and Kevin M. Silva and Hotaka Shiokawa and David R. Smith and William Parker Snow and Kamal Souccar and Don Sousa and Sridharan T. K. and Ranjani Srinivasan and William Stahm and Antony A. Stark and K. T. Story and Sjoerd T. Timmer and Laura Vertatschitsch and Craig A. Walther and Tashun Wei and Nathan Whitehorn and Alan R. Whitney and David P. Woody and Jan G. A. Wouterloot and Melvyn C. H. Wright and Paul Yamaguchi and Chen-Yu Yu and Milagros Zeballos and Shuo Zhang and Lucy M Ziurys},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal Letters},
When surrounded by a transparent emission region, black holes are expected to reveal a dark shadow caused by gravitational light bending and photon capture at the event horizon. To image and study this phenomenon, we have assembled the Event Horizon Telescope, a global very long baseline interferometry array observing at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. This allows us to reconstruct event-horizon-scale images of the supermassive black hole candidate in the center of the giant elliptical galaxy M87. We… 

First Sagittarius A* Event Horizon Telescope Results. I. The Shadow of the Supermassive Black Hole in the Center of the Milky Way

We present the first Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the Galactic center source associated with a supermassive black hole. These observations were conducted in

Visible Shapes of Black Holes M87* and SgrA*

We review the physical origins for possible visible images of the supermassive black hole M87* in the galaxy M87 and SgrA* in the Milky Way Galaxy. The classical dark black hole shadow of the maximal

First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VII. Polarization of the Ring

In 2017 April, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observed the near-horizon region around the supermassive black hole at the core of the M87 galaxy. These 1.3 mm wavelength observations revealed a

Black Hole Parameter Estimation from Its Shadow

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global submillimeter wavelength very long baseline interferometry array, unveiled event-horizon–scale images of the supermassive black hole M87* as an asymmetric

Constraining a black hole companion for M87* through imaging by the Event Horizon Telescope

The Event Horizon Telescope, a global very long baseline interferometric array observing at a wavelength of 1.3 mm, detected the first image of the M87 supermassive black hole (SMBH). M87 is a

Brightness Asymmetry of Black Hole Images as a Probe of Observer Inclination

The Event Horizon Telescope recently captured images of the supermassive black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy, which shows a ring-like emission structure with the south side only slightly

The Photon Ring in M87*

We report measurements of the gravitationally lensed secondary image—the first in an infinite series of so-called “photon rings”—around the supermassive black hole M87* via simultaneous modeling and

Event horizon silhouette: implications to supermassive black holes in the galaxies M87 and Milky Way

We demonstrate that a dark silhouette of the black hole illuminated by a thin accretion disk and seen by a distant observer is, in fact, a silhouette of the event horizon hemisphere. The boundary of

The Effects of Tilt on the Images of Black Hole Accretion Flows

We analyze two 3D general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic accretion simulations in the context of how they would manifest in Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations of supermassive black holes.

Separating astrophysics and geometry in black hole images

The observation of the shadow of the supermassive black hole M87 ∗ by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is sensitive to the spacetime geometry near the circular photon orbit and beyond, and it thus



First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. V. Physical Origin of the Asymmetric Ring

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has mapped the central compact radio source of the elliptical galaxy M87 at 1.3 mm with unprecedented angular resolution. Here we consider the physical implications


The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a project to assemble a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) network of millimeter wavelength dishes that can resolve strong field general relativistic

First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VI. The Shadow and Mass of the Central Black Hole

We present measurements of the properties of the central radio source in M87 using Event Horizon Telescope data obtained during the 2017 campaign. We develop and fit geometric crescent models

A geometric crescent model for black hole images

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global very long baseline interferometry array operating at millimetre wavelengths, is spatially resolving the immediate environments of black holes for the first

Imaging bright-spots in the accretion flow near the black hole horizon of Sgr A*

Images from the vicinity of the black hole horizon at the Galactic centre (Sgr A*) could be obtained in the near future with a Very Large Baseline Array of submillimetre telescopes. The recently

Imaging a boson star at the Galactic center

Millimeter very long baseline interferometry will soon produce accurate images of the closest surroundings of the supermassive compact object at the center of the Galaxy, Sgr A*. These images may

Jet-Launching Structure Resolved Near the Supermassive Black Hole in M87

Radio interferometry observations of the elliptical galaxy M87 are reported that spatially resolve the base of the jet in this source, suggesting that the M87 jet is powered by an accretion disk in a prograde orbit around a spinning black hole.


The 6 × 10 9 M ⊙ ?> supermassive black hole at the center of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 powers a relativistic jet. Observations at millimeter wavelengths with the Event Horizon Telescope have

Event-horizon-scale structure in the supermassive black hole candidate at the Galactic Centre

Observations at a wavelength of 1.3 mm set a size of microarcseconds on the intrinsic diameter of Sagittarius A*, suggesting that the bulk of Sgr A* emission may not be centred on the black hole, but arises in the surrounding accretion flow.


The silhouette cast by the horizon of the supermassive black hole in M87 can now be resolved with the emerging millimeter very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) capability. Despite being ∼2 × 103