First Impressions

  title={First Impressions},
  author={Janine Willis and Alexander Todorov},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  pages={592 - 598}
People often draw trait inferences from the facial appearance of other people. We investigated the minimal conditions under which people make such inferences. In five experiments, each focusing on a specific trait judgment, we manipulated the exposure time of unfamiliar faces. Judgments made after a 100-ms exposure correlated highly with judgments made in the absence of time constraints, suggesting that this exposure time was sufficient for participants to form an impression. In fact, for all… Expand
EvaluaTiNg faCES ON TruSTwOrThiNESS afTEr miNimal TimE ExpOSurE
Previous studies have shown that trustworthiness judgments from facial appearance approximate general valence evaluation of faces (Oosterhof & Todorov, 2008) and are made after as little as 100 msExpand
Age-related differences in spontaneous trait judgments from facial appearance
  • Harriet L. Smailes, Joyce E. Humphries, +4 authors H. Flowe
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Psychiatry, psychology, and law : an interdisciplinary journal of the Australian and New Zealand Association of Psychiatry, Psychology and Law
  • 2018
Judgement confidence increased with increasing exposure duration for both age groups, while older adults were less confident in their judgments overall than their young counterparts. Expand
Do social utility judgments influence attentional processing?
This work investigates how trustworthiness judgments alter the allocation of attention to social stimuli in a set of two experiments using an attentional blink paradigm, and suggests that a stimulus's potential benefits, rather than its disadvantages, shape the automatic distribution of attentional resources. Expand
If time flies, are you more fun? The relative effect of expected exposure duration on the evaluation of social stimuli
Two studies investigated how expectancy violations of exposure duration affected preference for neutral faces. In two experiments, participants evaluated pictures of neutral faces, ostensibly exposedExpand
Evaluating Faces on Trustworthiness
  • A. Todorov
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2008
It is argued that face evaluation is an extension of functionally adaptive systems for understanding the communicative meaning of emotional expressions and predicts a nonlinear response in the amygdala to face trustworthiness, confirmed in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, and dissociations between processing of facial identity and face evaluation, confirm in studies with developmental prosopagnosics. Expand
The Obligatory Nature of Holistic Processing of Faces in Social Judgments
It is suggested that the initial pass of information is holistic and that additional time allows participants to partially ignore the task-irrelevant context. Expand
Within-Person Variability in First Impressions From Faces
Across images, participants’ trustworthiness ratings tended to vary more than dominance, which in turn varied more than attractiveness, suggesting that these trait judgements are based to some degree on relatively invariant facial characteristics. Expand
Forming impressions of facial attractiveness is mandatory
The results show that the formation of attractiveness impressions from faces is mandatory, thus broadening the evidence for automaticity of facial impressions in real-world situations such as online dating sites. Expand
Personality, Intelligence, and Attractiveness Judgments: The Accuracy of First Impressions
First impressions are prominent in our everyday interactions. The way that we perceive others, even if based only on physical appearance, can influence future interactions. The strength of firstExpand
Who Can You Trust? Behavioral and Neural Differences Between Perceptual and Memory-Based Influences
Neural evidence of the processing of these two competing sources of information, such as analysis of facial features versus remembering specific information about the person, substantiates the conclusion that time pressure can selectively disrupt memory retrieval relevant to trustworthiness attributions. Expand


The human amygdala in social judgment
This investigation into the hypothesis that the human amygdala is required for accurate social judgments of other individuals on the basis of their facial appearance finds three subjects with complete bilateral amygdala damage to judge faces of unfamiliar people with respect to two attributes important in real-life social encounters: approachability and trustworthiness. Expand
The efficiency of binding spontaneous trait inferences to actors’ faces
Abstract Three experiments tested the hypothesis that the process of binding spontaneous trait inferences (STIs) to actors’ representations is relatively independent of attentional resources.Expand
Automatic and intentional brain responses during evaluation of trustworthiness of faces
The findings extend a proposed model of social cognition by highlighting a functional dissociation between automatic engagement of amygdala versus intentional engagement of STS in social judgment. Expand
Person Perception Comes of Age: The Salience and Significance of Age in Social Judgments
Publisher Summary This chapter examines people's perceptions of individuals of different ages and the social and psychological consequences of these age-related judgments. The chapter considers ageExpand
Inferences of Competence from Faces Predict Election Outcomes
It is shown that inferences of competence based solely on facial appearance predicted the outcomes of U.S. congressional elections better than chance and were linearly related to the margin of victory. Expand
Speed of processing in the human visual system
The visual processing needed to perform this highly demanding task can be achieved in under 150 ms, and ERP analysis revealed a frontal negativity specific to no-go trials that develops roughly 150 ms after stimulus onset. Expand
Facing faces: studies on the cognitive aspects of physiognomy.
  • R. Hassin, Y. Trope
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 2000
Using faces with neutral expressions, it is demonstrated that personality information conveyed in faces changes the interpretation of verbal information, and it is shown that physiognomic information has a consistent effect on decisions, and creates overconfidence in judgments. Expand
The primate amygdala and the neurobiology of social behavior: implications for understanding social anxiety
  • D. Amaral
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • 2002
Results imply that the amygdala functions as a protective "brake" on engagement of objects or organisms while an evaluation of potential threat is carried out and suggest that social anxiety may be a dysregulation or hyperactivity of the amygdala's evaluative process. Expand
The impact of litigants' baby-facedness and attractiveness on adjudications in small claims courts
The effects of litigants' facial appearance on judicial decisions were investigated in 506 cases heard in small claims courts. Replicating previous laboratory studies, both baby-facedness andExpand
A perspective on judgment and choice: mapping bounded rationality.
  • D. Kahneman
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The American psychologist
  • 2003
Determinants and consequences of accessibility help explain the central results of prospect theory, framing effects, the heuristic process of attribute substitution, and the characteristic biases that result from the substitution of nonextensional for extensional attributes. Expand