Firefly Toxicosis in Lizards

  title={Firefly Toxicosis in Lizards},
  author={Michael Knight and Richard E. Glor and Scott R. Smedley and Andr{\'e}s Gonz{\'a}lez and Kraig Adler and Thomas Eisner},
  journal={Journal of Chemical Ecology},
Ingestion of fireflies of the genus Photinus (Lampyridae) can be lethal to Australian lizards of the genus Pogona (Agamidae), probably because of the poisonous steroidal pyrones (lucibufagins) that these fireflies contain. One Photinus may suffice to kill a Pogona. Captive Pogona kept as pets need to be shielded from firefly ingestion. African chameleons (Chamaeleo; Chamaeleonidae) appear also to be vulnerable to Photinus toxicosis. 
A defensive steroidal pyrone in the Glow‐worm Lampyris noctiluca L. (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)
Abstract Chemical defences against predators appear to be widespread amongst fireflies but, until now, the substances involved have only been identified in a few species, all of them from North
Description of pleural defensive organs in three species of firefly larvae (Coleoptera, Lampyridae)
A detailed comparative examination of the morphology and microstructure of the pleural defensive organs of Lampyris noctiluca L., Luciola cruciata Motschulsky and a Nyctophila species obtained from Amol forest, Iran, using light microscopy and epifluorescent imaging revealed vesicles continuous with the Pleural organ membrane and held in place by a disc structure.
The phylogenetic positions of the luminous cantharoid families in relation to Lampyridae are discussed, as well as the implications of the evolution of bioluminescence and photic signaling in this group of beetles.
Pyrazine emission by a tropical firefly: An example of chemical aposematism?
The role of pyrazine is investigated in P. trivittata's interactions with potential predators: sympatric ants, toads, and bats, and underscores the idea that multiple enemies exert conflicting selection on firefly defenses.
Insect Collections as an Untapped Source of Bioactive Compounds—Fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) and Cardiotonic Steroids as a Proof of Concept
A case study on fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), which produce bufadienolides as a defense against predators, emphasizes the value of natural history collections as an archive of chemical information for ecological and evolutionary basic research and as an untapped source for novel bioactive compounds.
Husbandry, Diseases, and Veterinary Care of the Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps)
This review article is to provide a practical overview of the natural history, husbandry, nutrition, reproduction, physical examination method, diagnostic techniques, currently recognized diseases, and therapeutics found useful for the bearded dragon.
Structure and function of the eversible glands of the aquatic firefly Luciola leii (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)
Choice and no-choice bioassays involving fish and ants as well as other predators demonstrate that the glandular secretions of the aquatic firefly Luciola leii serve as an effective deterrent against a range of ecologically relevant enemies.
Reflex-bleeding in the Firefly Pyrocoelia pectoralis (Coleoptera: Lampyridae): Morphological Basis and Possible Function
Reflex-bleeding in the adults of Pyrocoelia pectoralis seems associated with thanatosis and luminescence and, thus, supports other defense reactions that the beetle has at its disposal.
The origin of photic behavior and the evolution of sexual communication in fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)
The origin of bioluminescence in cantharoid beetles appears to predate the origin of the family Lampyridae, and it is suggested that while pheromonal sexual signals are used basally in the family, they are used in conjunction with and then subsequently replaced by photic signals in some lampyrid lineages.
Structure and function of the eversible organs of several genera of larval firefly (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)
The study shows that the eversible larval organs form an important part of a defensive arsenal in the Lampyridae, and that small larvae run away instead of becoming immobile and glowing, whereas large larvae start to glow when disturbed.


Lucibufagins: Defensive steroids from the fireflies Photinus ignitus and P. marginellus (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).
Feeding tests with thrushes led to the isolation of three novel steroid pyrones from fireflies responsible, in part at least, for the unpalatability of these insects to the birds.
Lucibufagins, IV. New defensive steroids and a pterin from the firefly,Photinus pyralis (coleoptera: Lampyridae)
Two new defensive steroids (lucibufagins6 and7) and a fluorescent pterin (8) have been isolated and characterized from the fireflyPhotinus pyralis.
Firefly "femmes fatales" acquire defensive steroids (lucibufagins) from their firefly prey.
It is found that by feeding on Photinus males, Photuris females gain more than nutrients, and acquire defensive steroidal pyrones called lucibufagins, which are contained in Photinus but which photuris fireflies are unable to produce on their own.
Toxins of Blattaria
Cockroaches are probably the most pervasive of all insect domiciliary pests, with the result that in many parts of the world it is virtually impossible to avoid contact with cockroaches or their products.
The chemistry of sexual selection.
  • T. Eisner, J. Meinwald
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1995
The moth Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is protected against predation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids that it sequesters as a larva from its foodplants, and females reinforce after copulation the choice mechanism they already exercise during courtship.
Experimental Studies of Artificial Batesian Mimics
Using the lizard, Anolis carolinensis, as a predator, one can determine which of the Batesian mimics will escape predation, and when tested together with unmarked Tenebrio, only the mimics marked with both the prothorax and elytra escape some predation.
Biochemistry at 100�C: Explosive Secretory Discharge of Bombardier Beetles (Brachinus)
The defensive chemical spray of bombardier beetles is ejected at 100�C, with a heat content of about 0.2 calorie per milligram.
Die Biochemie der tierischen Gifte
Die biochemie der tierischen Gifte , Die biochemie der tierischen Gifte , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اطلاع رسانی کشاورزی
The Merck index
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