Fire ant venom alkaloids act as key attractants for the parasitic phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis (Diptera: Phoridae)

  title={Fire ant venom alkaloids act as key attractants for the parasitic phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis (Diptera: Phoridae)},
  author={Li Chen and Kavita R. Sharma and Henry Y. Fadamiro},
The phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier, is an introduced parasitoid of imported fire ants, Solenopsis spp., in the USA. Although the assumption that phorid flies use fire ant alarm pheromones for host location is probably true, we demonstrated in a previous study the possible involvement of other ant semiochemicals in the response of P. tricuspis to fire ants. This study was conducted to determine the glandular sources and identity of the semiochemicals mediating this interaction… 

Fire ant alarm pheromone and venom alkaloids act in concert to attract parasitic phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp.

Parasite Lost: Chemical and Visual Cues Used by Pseudacteon in Search of Azteca instabilis

Results indicate that a pygidial gland compound, 1-acetyl-2-methylcyclopentane, is at least partially responsible for attracting phorid flies to their host.

Pseudacteon Phorid Flies: Host Specificity and Impacts on Solenopsis Fire Ants.

This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying host location, host preference, and host-size selection of Pseudacteon phorid flies and highlights their direct and indirect effects on fire ant populations.

Title Cuticular Hydrocarbon Cues Are Used for Host Acceptance by Pseudacteon spp . Phorid Flies that Attack Azteca sericeasur Ants Permalink

It is shown, through behavioral observations in the field, that phorid flies are attracted to two crypticAzteca species, but only attack Azteca sericeasur, a short-range, host location cue used by P. lasciniosus (Diptera: Phoridae) to locate the ants.

Behavioural response of the fungus gnat, Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) towards certain edible mushrooms and saprophytic fungi

The potential for the development of M. circinelloides in a push‐pull strategy to biocontrol this pest in edible mushroom cultivation is demonstrated.

Identification of active components from volatiles of Chinese bayberry, Myrica rubra attractive to Drosophila suzukii

Gas chromatograph–electroantennographic detection together with behavioural bioassays and trapping experiments are employed to identify volatile semiochemicals emitted by Chinese bayberry attracting D. suzukii, and the presence of six EAD-active compounds from ripe bayberry fruits revealed the existence of an unidentified compound that elicited consistent antennal response.

Reduction of venom alkaloids in Solenopsis richteri×Solenopsis invicta hybrid: an attempt to identify new alkaloidal components.

It is evident that the chemical identities of the five new peaks of the venom of hybrid fire ant are quite different from those known piperidines or piperideines found in Solenopsis fire ants.

Effect of gland extracts on digging and residing preferences of red imported fire ant workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Analysis of data pooled from the same three colonies used for gland extract bioassays found that, in no cases, workers showed significant digging and residing preferences to 2‐ethyl‐3,6‐dimethylpyrazine, an alarm pheromone component from mandibular gland.



Behavioral and Electroantennogram Responses of Phorid fly Pseudacteon tricuspis (Diptera: Phoridae) to Red Imported Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta Odor and Trail Pheromone

It is suggested thatFire ant thorax is likely the source of kairomones used as host location cues by P. tricuspis, and the hypothesis that fire ant worker trail pheromones are not likely used by the phorid fly is supported.

Post-Release Host-Specificity Testing of Pseudacteon tricuspis, a Phorid Parasitoid of Solenopsis Invicta Fire Ants

Tests of host specificity on introduced populations of Pseudacteon tricuspis found it to be highly host specific and pose no obvious threat to nontarget species.

Response of the Egg Parasitoids Trissolcus basalis and Telenomus podisi to Compounds from Defensive Secretions of Stink Bugs

The results indicate some degree of specialization in the response of two generalist parasitoid species toward defensive secretions of stink bugs.

Response of the Ladybird Parasitoid Dinocampus coccinellae to Toxic Alkaloids from the Seven-spot Ladybird, Coccinella septempunctata

Myrrhine, a stereoisomer of precoccinelline found in low amounts in C. septempunctata and in other ladybird species, was shown to be electrophysiologically active and significantly attractive.

Rearing the decapitating fly Pseudacteon tricuspis (Diptera: Phoridae) in imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the United States

The South American phorid fly Pseudacteon tricupis Borgmeier was imported into quarantine facilities in Gainesville, FL, to study its life history and determine if it could be reared on imported fire ant workers from North America and developed successfully, indicating that mass rearing for inoculative releases in the United States may be possible.


Results demonstrate that P. tricuspis and P. litoralis are highly specific to saevissima complex fire ants and strongly indicate that they would pose little threat to native fire ants should they be released as biocontrol agents for imported fire ants in the United States.

Fly parasitoid Megaselia opacicornis uses defensive secretions of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica to locate its host

Experiments indicate that host plant-derived defensive secretions are used by this parasitoid for host location, and adaptation of parasitoids to use defensivesecretions of hosts may selectively favor an increase in diet breadth in specialist herbivores.

Protein components of fire ant venom (Solenopsis invicta).


Larvae of phorid flies in the genus Pseudacteon have the unusual habit of decapitating fire ant workers and pupating inside the empty head capsule which they use as a pupal case. Flies in this genus

Biology of Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae) ant parasitoids and their potential to control imported Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

The presence of Pseudacteon phorids causes behavioral changes in host workers, however, often putting the host species at a competitive disadvantage relative to other ant species in the community.