Fire and Stone

  title={Fire and Stone},
  author={John Webb and Marian Domański},
  pages={820 - 821}
For at least 72,000 years, humans have used heat treatment of stone materials to make more efficient tools. Faced with the difficulties of surviving in often hostile surroundings, early humans manufactured various flaked stone tools to increase the success of food gathering and the efficiency of food processing. Special-purpose tools increased the likelihood of obtaining food and were particularly important when it was hard to secure adequate food resources (1, 2). For example, projectile… Expand
Heat treatment significantly increases the sharpness of silcrete stone tools
Humans were regularly heat‐treating stone tool raw materials as early as 130 thousand years ago. The late Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Late Stone Age (LSA) of South Africa’s Western Cape regionExpand
Experimental heat treatment of silcrete implies analogical reasoning in the Middle Stone Age.
Results show that the volume expansion during the thermally induced α- to β-quartz phase transformation and the volume contraction during cooling play a major role in the heat treatment of silcrete. Expand
Tracing Fire in Early European Prehistory: Microcharcoal Quantification in Geological and Archaeological Records from Molise (Southern Italy)
Fire control and conservation is a major innovation of early prehistory. It is evidenced on Early Palaeolithic sites in western Eurasia dating to between 400 and 300 ka. In southern Italy, a largeExpand
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Cognitive complexity is defined here as the capacity for abstract thought, analogical reasoning, cognitive fluidity, innovative thought, complex goal-directed actions, flexibility in problem-solving,Expand
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Peopling of the Americas Hunter & gatherer evolution Human sedentism & mobility Island & coastal archaeology Chronometric dating techniques Paleoecology Stable isotopes Geochemistry ArtifactExpand
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Abstract The role of Europe and Europeans in the archaeology of post-1500 history has recently been critiqued. Some research has been pejoratively labeled Eurocentrism. This paper addresses theExpand
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Fire As an Engineering Tool of Early Modern Humans
Replication experiments and analysis of artifacts suggest that humans in South Africa at this time, and perhaps earlier, systematically heated stone materials, including silcrete to improve its flaking properties in making tools. Expand
A Review of Heat Treatment Research
Abstract The recognition of intentional heat treatment of stone artifacts in the archaeological record has been a major research topic since the initial study by Crabtree and Butler (1964).Expand
Mechanical testing of lithologies used for stone tool manufacture has shown that fracture toughness is the most objective measure of the quality of raw materials shaped by either flaking orExpand
Effect of heat treatment on Siliceous rocks used in prehistoric lithic technology
Stone tool manufacture by many prehistoric and recent societies was characterized by deliberate heating of fine grained siliceous rocks to improve their flaking properties. Extensive mechanicalExpand
Reevaluation of the Lindenmeier Folsom: a Replication Experiment In Lithic Technology
This article reports on a continuing study of the stoneworking technology of the Lindenmeier Folsom. Production time, sequential stages of manufacture, and fluting technique are examined andExpand
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This paper draws upon ethnographic experiences among the Nunamiut Eskimo for insights into the effects of technological organization on interassemblage variability. Varying situationally conditionedExpand
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