Bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is the most devastating plant bacterial disease worldwide. Different bacterial blight resistance (R) genes confer race-specific resistance to different strains of Xoo. We fine mapped a fully recessive gene, xa24, for bacterial blight resistance to a 71-kb DNA fragment in the long arm of rice chromosome 2 using polymerase chain reaction-based molecular markers. The xa24 gene confers disease resistance at the seedling and adult stages. It mediates resistance to at least the Philippine Xoo races 4, 6 and 10 and Chinese Xoo strains Zhe173, JL691 and KS-1-21. Sequence analysis of the DNA fragment harboring the dominant (susceptible) allele of xa24 suggests that this gene should encode a novel protein that is not homologous to any known R proteins. These results will greatly facilitate the isolation and characterization of xa24. The markers will be convenient tools for marker-assisted selection of xa24 in breeding programs.