Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene

@article{Nair2008FineSC,
  title={Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene},
  author={Rahul R. Nair and Peter Blake and Alexander N. Grigorenko and Kostya S. Novoselov and Timothy J. Booth and Tobias Stauber and Nuno M. R. Peres and SUPARNA DUTTASINHA},
  journal={Science},
  year={2008},
  volume={320},
  pages={1308 - 1308}
}
There are few phenomena in condensed matter physics that are defined only by the fundamental constants and do not depend on material parameters. Examples are the resistivity quantum, h/e2 (h is Planck's constant and e the electron charge), that appears in a variety of transport experiments and the magnetic flux quantum, h/e, playing an important role in the physics of superconductivity. By and large, sophisticated facilities and special measurement conditions are required to observe any of… 

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