Finding or Creating a Living Organism? Past and Future Thought Experiments in Astrobiology Applied to Artificial Intelligence.

@article{Helman2022FindingOC,
  title={Finding or Creating a Living Organism? Past and Future Thought Experiments in Astrobiology Applied to Artificial Intelligence.},
  author={Daniel S. Helman},
  journal={Acta biotheoretica},
  year={2022},
  volume={70 2},
  pages={
          13
        }
}
This is a digest of how various researchers in biology and astrobiology have explored questions of what defines living organisms-definitions based on functions or structures observed in organisms, or on systems terms, or on mathematical conceptions like closure, chirality, quantum mechanics and thermodynamics, or on biosemiotics, or on Darwinian evolution-to clarify the field and make it easier for endeavors in artificial intelligence to make progress. Current ideas are described to promote… 

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 83 REFERENCES
Towards a Hierarchical Definition of Life, the Organism, and Death
TLDR
This paper suggests improving definitions of life and death by basing definitions on a theory of a generalized particle hierarchy, which uses the common denominator of the “operator” for a unified ranking of both particles and organisms, from elementary particles to animals with brains.
Statistical Physics of Adaptation
TLDR
A generalization of the Helmholtz free energy for the finite-time stochastic evolution of driven Newtonian matter is demonstrated and argued for a general tendency in driven many-particle systems towards self-organization into states formed through exceptionally reliable absorption and dissipation of work energy from the surrounding environment.
Operators, the Lego‐bricks of nature: Evolutionary transitions from fermions to neural networks
When Darwin wrote his ‘On the origin of species…” (1859) he focused on evolution as a property of living organisms in interaction with abiotic and biotic elements in the world. This viewpoint is
Evolution and transitions in complexity : The science of hierarchical organization in nature
TLDR
This work puts forth a new point of view which allows researchers to define in detail the concept of evolution, and develops an object-based pattern of evolution at the smallest scale.
Autopoiesis and Cognition
TLDR
A mathematical model of a 3D tesselation automaton, considered as a minimal example of autopoiesis, is presented, and a thesis T1 is proposed: An autopoietic system can be described as a random dynamical system, which is defined only within its organized autopOietic domain.
The Road to a Measurable Quantitative Understanding of Self-Organization and Evolution
TLDR
This book focuses on a quantitative description of self-organization and evolution and applies the principle of least action from physics, which can introduce time dependence in nonequilibrium thermodynamics in complex systems.
Biosemiotics: a new understanding of life
TLDR
The time has come to acknowledge this fact of life, even if that means abandoning the present theoretical framework in favor of a more general one where biology and semiotics finally come together and become biosemiotics.
Did Consciousness Cause the Cambrian Evolutionary Explosion ?
When and where did consciousness emerge in the course of evolution? Did it happen as recently as the past million years, for example concomitant with language or tool making in humans or primates? Or
THE CHIRALITY OF LIFE: FROM PHASE TRANSITIONS TO ASTROBIOLOGY
TLDR
This work discusses recent results suggesting that life’s homochirality resulted from sequential chiral symmetry breaking triggered by environmental events in a mechanism referred to as punctuated chirality and predicts that a statistically representative sampling of extraterrestrial stereochemistry will be racemic on average.
What is life? : the physical aspect of the living cell
TLDR
Mind and Matter: The physical basis of consciousness and the arithmetical paradox: the oneness of mind, and the classical physicist's approach to the subject.
...
...