Filtration Performance of Layering Masks and Face Coverings and the Reusability of Cotton Masks after Repeated Washing and Drying

  title={Filtration Performance of Layering Masks and Face Coverings and the Reusability of Cotton Masks after Repeated Washing and Drying},
  author={Sumit Sankhyan and Karen N. Heinselman and Peter N. Ciesielski and Teresa Barnes and Michael E. Himmel and Hannah Teed and Sameer Patel and Marina E. Vance},
  journal={Aerosol and Air Quality Research},
In this study, filtration efficiency of different respirators, face masks, and a 2-ply cotton handkerchief bandana was compared for particles in the size range of 60 nm-4 mu m under a "perfect fit" condition. The filtration efficiency at the most penetrating particle size of 0.3 mu m on average ranged from 83-99% for N95 and KN95 respirators, 42-88% for surgical masks, 16-23% for cloth masks, and 9% for bandana. We also investigated the effects of using double surgical masks or layering a cloth… 

Figures from this paper

Filtration and breathability of nonwoven fabrics used in washable masks
This study explores nonwoven and woven fabrics to improve upon the performance of the widespread all-cotton mask, and examines the effect of layering, machine washing and drying on their filtration
Effect of washing on quality, breathability performance and reusability of disposable face masks.
This work is an attempt to contribute to the determination of the reusability threshold of general-purpose disposable surgical type face masks thereby contributing to the reduction of environmental concerns.
Modeling the filtration efficiency of a woven fabric: The role of multiple lengthscales
During the COVID-19 pandemic, many millions have worn masks made of woven fabric to reduce the risk of transmission of COVID-19. Masks are essentially air filters worn on the face that should filter
Epidemic disease and the state: Is there a tradeoff between public health and liberty?
Evidence is presented that the existence of a tradeoff between public health and freedom can obtain in the short run but that, in the long run, the negative relationship is reversed and the trade-off disappears.
A Mathematical Epidemiological Model (SEQIJRDS) to Recommend Public Health Interventions Related to COVID-19 in Sri Lanka
A mathematical epidemiological model, called SEQIJRDS, having additional compartments for quarantine and infected people divided into two compartments as diagnosed and non diagnosed, compared to the SEIR model, is presented and combined public health interventions based on the projections of the proposed model are recommended.
Alternative methods to measure aerosol penetration through a filter
  • M. Alonso
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of Aerosol Science
  • 2022


Evaluating the efficacy of cloth facemasks in reducing particulate matter exposure
The results suggest that cloth masks are only marginally beneficial in protecting individuals from particles<2.5 μm, and disposable surgical masks are more effective in reducing particulate exposure.
Inward and outward effectiveness of cloth masks, a surgical mask, and a face shield
A three-layer mask consisting of outer layers of a flexible, tightly woven fabric and an inner layer consisting of a material designed to filter out particles is recommended, which should produce an overall efficiency of >70% at the most penetrating particle size and >90% for particles 1 m and larger if the mask fits well.
Filtration efficiency of a large set of COVID-19 face masks commonly used in Brazil
Masks always reduce droplets and aerosols emitted by COVID-19 symptomatic and asymptomatic persons, reducing SARS-CoV-2 contamination.
Aerosol Filtration Efficiency of Common Fabrics Used in Respiratory Cloth Masks
Overall, it is found that combinations of various commonly available fabrics used in cloth masks can potentially provide significant protection against the transmission of aerosol particles.
Simple Respiratory Protection—Evaluation of the Filtration Performance of Cloth Masks and Common Fabric Materials Against 20–1000 nm Size Particles
Results obtained in the study show that common fabric materials may provide marginal protection against nanoparticles including those in the size ranges of virus-containing particles in exhaled breath.
Ability of fabric face mask materials to filter ultrafine particles at coughing velocity
The findings suggest that face masks made from layered common fabric can help filter ultrafine particles and provide some protection for the wearer when commercial face masks are unavailable.
Aerosol filtration efficiency of household materials for homemade face masks: Influence of material properties, particle size, particle electrical charge, face velocity, and leaks
Abstract As a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the widespread daily use of face masks is promoted worldwide. Particle-size dependent filtration efficiencies (FE;
Household Materials Selection for Homemade Cloth Face Coverings and Their Filtration Efficiency Enhancement with Triboelectric Charging
Using the filtration quality factor, fabric microstructure, and charging ability, this work is able to provide an assessment of suggested fabric materials for homemade facial coverings.
Maximizing Fit for Cloth and Medical Procedure Masks to Improve Performance and Reduce SARS-CoV-2 Transmission and Exposure, 2021
CDC conducted experimental simulations using pliable elastomeric source and receiver headforms to assess the extent to which two modifications to medical procedure masks could improve the fit of these masks and reduce the receiver's exposure to an aerosol of simulated respiratory droplet particles of the size considered most important for transmitting SARS-CoV-2.