Fig wasps (Hymenoptera)

  title={Fig wasps (Hymenoptera)},
  author={J. T. Wiebes},
Fig wasps cannot exist by themselves. They live in a close and obligate symbiosis with the figs (Ficus) in the sycones of which they breed, each species of wasp with its own species of fig. The figs are totally dependent on these wasps of the hymenopterous family Agaonidae, which are the sole agents for the pollination of the flowers hidden in their urn-shaped inflorescences. Thus, ecology of fig wasps is for the greater part flower-ecology of figs and there is but one biogeography for both. No… 
How to be a fig wasp.
This new synthesis of fig wasp research attempts to integrate recent contributions with the older literature and to promote research on diverse topics ranging from behavioral ecology to molecular evolution.
Ficus (Moraceae) and Hymenoptera (Chalcidoidea): Figs and their pollinators
It seems from the botanical side that the evolution of Ficus into subgenera and sections preceded that of its insects into genera, and there are no grounds for reclassification of Ficua, but leaf structure indicates that some rearrangement of the species of subgen.
Virginity in haplodiploid populations: a study on fig wasps
The fig wasps inhabiting the figs of Ficus hispidioides S. Moore in New Guinea were investigated and the absence of fighting and male wing dimorphism were studied in the context of the predictions of their occurrence by Hamilton (1979).
Variation in reproductive success of gynodioecious figs ( Ficus spp., Moraceae) and their pollinators (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) in New Guinea
Results suggest that fig and wasp reproductive success is positively related in gynodioecious species, and the ecological significance of fig reproductive output to tropical rain forests is discussed.
Moraceae of Papua george d. weiblen
The 37 genera of Moraceae have a broad range of inflorescence forms, pollination syndromes, and breeding systems (Datwyler and Weiblen 2004). Most of the 1,100 species are figs (Ficus) known for a
Molecular phylogeny of fig wasps Agaonidae are not monophyletic.
Molecular phylogenies of fig wasps: partial cocladogenesis of pollinators and parasites.
It is argued that host plant switching is likely to be less constrained for Sycoscapter parasites than for Pleistodontes pollinators, and there is not perfect congruence of pollinator and parasite phylogenies.
An Extreme Case of Plant–Insect Codiversification: Figs and Fig-Pollinating Wasps
Biogeographic analyses indicate that the present-day distribution of fig and pollinator lineages is consistent with a Eurasian origin and subsequent dispersal, rather than with Gondwanan vicariance.
Shift to mutualism in parasitic lineages of the fig/fig wasp interaction
The interaction between Ficus and their pollinating wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) represents a striking example of mutualism. Figs also host numerous non-pollinating wasps belonging to other
A preliminary review of some interesting aspects of bio-ethology of the chalcids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) associated with plant galls
The interactions and inter-relationships between plant galls and the chalcids with them are often extremely intricate and it is not easy always to assess correctly a given species as a gall former or


Fig wasps: mechanism of pollen transfer.
The fig (Ficus) is absolutely dependent upon pollination by minute agaonid wasps for development of fertile seeds and the New World Tetrapus and some Old World Blastophaga lack pollen-carrying structures and may carry pollen dusted over the body or in the digestive tract.
Ficus dammaropsis and the Multibracteate Species of Ficus Sect. Sycocarpus
The syconium of F. dammaropsis (New Guinea) is presented as the the primitive state of this structure in the advanced sect. Sycocarpus. The rare F. griffithii (Burma, Thailand) may be related to F.
Indo-Malayan and Papuan fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) : 4. Agaonidae from Ficus section Adenosperma
The pollinator wasps of two sections of the subgenus Ficus L. Corner, related to the wasps from section Sycocarpus Miquel subsections Auriculisperma Corner, Theophrastoides Corner 1 and Papuasyce Corner, are placed in the Ceratosolen armipes-group.
Two subgenera, Pharmaeosycea and Urostigma, suggest a southern migration, but the third subgenus Ficus suggests a northern origin and dispersal, and the facts are based on monographic revision of the species of Asia and Australasia.
Nigeriella, a new genus of West African Fig wasps Allied to Elisabethiella grandi (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidae, Agaonidae)
Keys to species of Elisabethiella Grandi and Nigeriella, and to African genera of Aga onidae; differentiation of subfamilies Agaoninae and Blastophaginae.
The process is now shown to entail loading of pollen in the polleniferous fig into intersegmental and pleural invaginations which form in the shrunken body of the wasp following water loss.
Indo-Malayan and Papuan fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) 7. Agaonidae, mainly caught at light
Revision of Pleistodontes Saunders, with descriptions of new species mandibularis, galbinus, and longicaudus and description of a new species of Waterstoniella.
Fig wasps from Ficus dzumacensis, with notes on the genus Sycobiella Westwood
A sample of fig wasps from New Caledonia, sent to me by Mr. E. H. Corner, contained a species of Blastophaga Gravenhorst (Agaonidae) and aspecies of Sycobiella Westwood (Torymidae), which is the first to become known in both sexes.
A New Classification of Ficus
The object of this study is to group the taxa of Ficus into related groups considering the specificity and morphology of their symbiotic agaonids, the different systems of pollination, as well as the morphology and physiology of the figs.
Ficus subgen. Ficus. Two rare and primitive pachycaul species
Two small pachycaul trees of limited distribution presenting the most primitive vegetative and floral characters in their series contrast with the leptocaul species which, with advanced structure, become the common and widespread members of the series.