Fifty Years of Prefrontal Cortex Research: Impact on Assessment

@article{Burgess2017FiftyYO,
  title={Fifty Years of Prefrontal Cortex Research: Impact on Assessment},
  author={Paul W. Burgess and Donald T. Stuss},
  journal={Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society},
  year={2017},
  volume={23},
  pages={755 - 767}
}
  • P. Burgess, D. Stuss
  • Published 1 October 2017
  • Psychology, Biology
  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Abstract Our knowledge of the functions of the prefrontal cortex, often called executive, supervisory, or control, has been transformed over the past 50 years. After operationally defining terms for clarification, we review the impact of advances in functional, structural, and theoretical levels of understanding upon neuropsychological assessment practice as a means of identifying 11 principles/challenges relating to assessment of executive function. Three of these were already known 50 years… 
A Frontal Account of False Alarms
TLDR
A neurocognitive account that explores the link between deficient frontal lobe function and increased false alarms across an array of experimental tasks from a variety of task domains and proposes 11 issues in cognitive processing that can result in false alarms is described.
The Relationship between Executive Function and the Conservation of Quantity in Early Childhood Cognitive Processes from the Viewpoint of the Prefrontal Cortex
  • Nobuki Watanabe
  • Psychology
    International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education
  • 2021
Conservation and executive function (EF) are important early childhood skills; however, knowledge about their relationship is scarce. Hence, in this study, this relationship is investigated, and a
Age-related decline in executive function as a hallmark of cognitive ageing in primates: an overview of cognitive and neurobiological studies
TLDR
Evidence for age-related decline in EF and associated neurobiological changes in prosimians, New World and Old World monkeys, apes and humans is reviewed, elucidating how ageing shapes neurocognitive trajectories in primates with different life histories, lifespans and brain architectures.
Frontal Anatomical Correlates of Cognitive and Speech Motor Deficits in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
TLDR
The data supported the overall hypothesis that distinct behavioral changes in cognition and speaking rate in ALS were related to specific regional neurostructural brain changes and support a more integrative framework for clinical assessment of frontal lobe functioning in ALS, which requires both behavioral testing and neuroimaging.
Response of Prefrontal Cortex to Executive Function Tasks in Early Childhood: An Exploratory Case Study for Childcare
Executive function (EF) development is remarkable in early childhood. EF is an ability that provides a foundation for future success; accordingly, supporting children during their early childhood is
Distributed functional connectivity predicts neuropsychological test performance among older adults
TLDR
The results suggest that late‐life neuropsychological test performance can be formally characterized with distributed connectome‐based predictive models, and further translational evidence is needed when developing theoretically valid and clinically incremental predictive models.
Introduction to the special issue: Are modern neuropsychological assessment methods really “modern”? Reflections on the current neuropsychological test armamentarium
TLDR
The process of modernizing methods of assessment in clinical neuropsychology is laborious and requires a coordinated, sustained effort among clinicians, researchers, and the test industry.
The Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale in the differential diagnosis of behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease
TLDR
The Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale has good psychometric prosperities; is easy to administer and score; is well tolerated by geriatric patients; and is useful diagnostically for discriminating bvFTD from AD, yielding good to excellent sensitivity and specificity values.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 132 REFERENCES
Morphological Correlations of Human and Monkey Frontal Lobe
TLDR
In examining a complex process such as decision-making from a neural perspective, it may be beneficial to consider functional components in the context of cellular as well as connectional features of prefrontal areas.
NEW APPROACHES TO PREFRONTAL LOBE TESTING
TLDR
It is proposed in this chapter that the neuropsychological assessment of the prefrontal region of the brain can be divided into four functional categories: (1) executive cognitive, (2) behavioral/emotional self-regulatory, (3) activation regulating, and (4) metacognitive processes.
The case for the development and use of “ecologically valid” measures of executive function in experimental and clinical neuropsychology
TLDR
This article considers the scientific process whereby new and better clinical tests of executive function might be developed, and what form they might take, and considers as an alternative approach a function-led development programme which in principle could yield tasks better suited to the concerns of the clinician because of the transparency afforded by increased “representativeness” and “generalisability.
Is there a dysexecutive syndrome?
  • D. Stuss, M. Alexander
  • Psychology, Biology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2007
TLDR
It is proposed that there are discrete categories of functions within the frontal lobes, of which ‘executive’ functioning is one, and within the executive category, the data do not support the concept of an undifferentiated central executive/supervisory system.
The Organisation of Mind
Functional Specialization within Rostral Prefrontal Cortex (Area 10): A Meta-analysis
TLDR
A meta-analysis of 104 functional neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography/functional magnetic resonance imaging points to considerable functional segregation within rostral prefrontal cortex.
The ecological validity of tests of executive function.
TLDR
The extent to which neuropsychological tests predicted the patients' everyday life problems is reported, supporting the conclusions that different tests measure different cognitive processes, and that there may be limits to the fractionation of the executive system.
...
...