Field relevance of a synergistic effect observed in the laboratory between an EBI fungicide and a chloronicotinyl insecticide in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L, Hymenoptera).

@article{Schmuck2003FieldRO,
  title={Field relevance of a synergistic effect observed in the laboratory between an EBI fungicide and a chloronicotinyl insecticide in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L, Hymenoptera).},
  author={Richard Schmuck and Teodoro Stadler and Hans-Werner Schmidt},
  journal={Pest management science},
  year={2003},
  volume={59 3},
  pages={279-86}
}
It had been found earlier that the chloronicotinyl insecticide thiacloprid (as the 480 g litre(-1) SC Calypso) poses a favourably low toxicity hazard to the honeybee, Apis mellifera L. As with pyrethroids, the metabolization of chloronicotinyl compounds involves monooxygenases, which are known to be inhibited by some ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor (EBI) fungicides potentially co-applied with these insecticides. The potential synergistic enhancement of the toxicity of thiacloprid to honeybees… CONTINUE READING

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