Field and potential around local scatterers in thin metal films studied by scanning tunneling potentiometry

@article{Ramaswamy1998FieldAP,
  title={Field and potential around local scatterers in thin metal films studied by scanning tunneling potentiometry},
  author={Geetha Ramaswamy and Arup Kumar Raychaudhuri},
  journal={Applied Physics Letters},
  year={1998},
  volume={75},
  pages={1982-1984}
}
We report the direct observation of electrochemical potential and local transport field variations near scatterers like grain boundaries, triple points, and voids in thin platinum films studied by scanning tunneling potentiometry. The field is highest at a void, followed by a triple point and a grain boundary. The local transport field near a void can even be four orders of magnitude higher than the macroscopic field, indicating that the void is the most likely place for an electromigration… 
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