Field Evidence for Bioluminescent Signaling in the Pony Fish, Leiognathus elongatus

  title={Field Evidence for Bioluminescent Signaling in the Pony Fish, Leiognathus elongatus},
  author={Akara Sasaki and Kou Ikejima and Shigeru Aoki and Nobuyuki Azuma and Noboru Kashimura and Minoru Wada},
  journal={Environmental Biology of Fishes},
Luminescence of the pony fish, Leiognathus elongatus, was observed in the natural environment during nighttime diving. The light was emitted from the lateroventral portion of the body, as bright rectangular-shaped luminescence patches turned on and off periodically. Luminescent fish had a distinct clear patch on the flank through which light was emitted, whereas non-luminous fish did not have such a clear patch. Both luminous and non-luminous fish were found within a shoal, where non-luminous… 
Evolution of the light organ system in ponyfishes (Teleostei: Leiognathidae)
Both internal and external sexual dimorphism in the ponyfish LOs were recovered as most likely to have evolved in the common ancestor of Leiognathidae, and likelihood‐based correlation analyses indicate that the evolution ofinternal and external dimorphisms in males is statistically correlated.
Functional morphology of the luminescence system of Siphamia versicolor (Perciformes: Apogonidae), a bacterially luminous coral reef fish
Observations suggest that S. versicolor uses ventral luminescence to attract and feed on zooplankton from the reef benthos at twilight and to exploit for feeding the gap at twilight in the presence of potential predators as the reef transitions from diurnallyactive to nocturnally active organisms.
Functional physiology of lantern shark (Etmopterus spinax) luminescent pattern: differential hormonal regulation of luminous zones
A sexual dimorphism in the luminescent response to PRL is demonstrated, with male specimens having smaller Ltot and TLmax in the luminous zones from the pelvic region, which strongly suggests a role for the luminecence from these zones in reproduction.
A New Species of Ponyfish (Teleostei: Leiognathidae: Photoplagios) from Madagascar, with a Phylogeny for Photoplagios and Comments on the Status of Equula lineolata Valenciennes
A phylogeny for Photoplagios is provided based on the simultaneous analysis of anatomical features of the light-organ system and nucleotide characters and the taxonomic status of Equula lineolata Valenciennes is discussed, and the species is concluded to be a nomen dubium of uncertain placement beyond the family level.
Developmental and Microbiological Analysis of the Inception of Bioluminescent Symbiosis in the Marine Fish Nuchequula nuchalis (Perciformes: Leiognathidae)
Results indicate that light organs of N. nuchalis flexion and postflexion larvae are at an early stage of development and that inception of the symbiosis apparently occurs in flexion larvae of 6.0 to 6.5 mm in notochord length, and that Ontogeny of the light organ therefore apparently precedes acquisition of the Symbiotic bacteria.
Inception of formation and early morphogenesis of the bacterial light organ of the sea urchin cardinalfish, Siphamia versicolor
It is demonstrated that the inception of light organ formation in S. versicolor occurs independently of its symbiotic bacteria and that receptivity to bacterial colonization apparently requires substantial post-release development of the light organ.
Phylogeny and Taxonomic Revision of Nuchequula Whitley 1932 (Teleostei: Leiognathidae), with The Description of a New Species
A phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters, including features of the light-organ system, indicates that Nuchequula is monophyletic.
Geometric morphometrics uncovers a new species of ponyfish (Teleostei: Leiognathidae: Equulites), with comments on the taxonomic status of Equula berbis Valenciennes
A new species of Equulites is revealed using geometric morphometric techniques and is herein described, and the taxonomic status of Equula berbis Valenciennes is reviewed and is concluded to be a nomen dubium of uncertain placement beyond the family level.
Phylogenetic analysis of host–symbiont specificity and codivergence in bioluminescent symbioses
In several associations, bacterial species identities contradicted strict host family bacterial species specificity and the hypothesis of codivergence in bioluminescent symbioses was refuted.
Social signaling via bioluminescent blinks drives schooling behavior in the flashlight fish Anomalops katoptron
It is suggested that visually transmitted information via specific blink patterns determine intraspecific communication and group cohesion in schooling A. katoptron.


Camouflage by Disruptive Illumination in Leiognathids, a Family of Shallow-Water, Bioluminescent Fishes
The ventral illumination behavior of leiognathids, with their associated morphology, is compared and contrasted with the counterillumination systems that have been described in a number of mesopelagic fishes, shrimps and squids.
A synchronized rhythmic flashing light display by schooling Leiognathus splendens (Leiognathidae : Perciformes)
A spectacular light display in schooling Leiognathus splendens in the field at Ambon, Indonesia is recorded, markedly increasing underwater visibility for a human observer.
The Luminescent Systems of Pony Fishes
The anatomy of bioluminescent organs and mode of light production in 18 species of pony fish have been investigated using fresh and preserved material and a simple classification of the luminescent systems is proposed.
Leiognathus elongatus (Perciformes: Leiognathidae): Two Distinct Species Based on Morphological and Light Organ Characters
The use of the light-organ system is proposed in clarifying questions of leiognathid taxonomy by recognizing two species: L. stercorarius Evermann and Seale (group I), a previously buried synonym of L. elongatus (Glinther) (group II), which includes fishes previously named Equula elongata Giinther and L. popei (Whitley).
Three new modes of luminescence in the leiognathid fish Gazza minuta: Discrete projected luminescence, ventral body flash, and buccal luminescence
Three new modes of luminescence are described for Gazza minuta (Bloch) (Perciformes: Leiognathidae) as observed in specimens collected in the Philippines in April and May, 1982: discrete projected
Adaptations for reflection of bioluminescent light in the gas bladder of Leiognathus equulus (Perciformes: Leiognathidae).
  • M. McFall-Ngai
  • Environmental Science
    The Journal of experimental zoology
  • 1983
The enhancement of purine in the reflective portions of the bladder and the correlation of the differential distribution of purines with the path of light indicate that the L. equulus gas bladder is exquisitely adapted to function as a reflector of bioluminescent light.
External and internal sexual dimorphism in leiognathid fishes: Morphological evidence for sex‐specific bioluminescent signaling
A bioluminescent signaling function by males is suggested for the sexual dimorphism in leiognathids, which may play an important role in the schooling behavior as well as in species and sexual recognition of these coastal fishes.
Revision of the Australian species of the fish family Leiognathidae
The Australian species of Leiognathidae are revised and their distinguishing features more clearly defined and incorrect usage in the literature of several species names, including L. brevirostris and L. lineolatus, is discussed.
Initiation and Control of the Bioluminescent Symbiosis between Photobacterium leiognathi and Leiognathid Fish
The light-organ symbioses, because of the pure-culture nature of the symbiotic bacteria, offer a great potential for revealing specific symbiotic interactions between prokaryotes and their eukaryote hosts, but this potential has not been realized and at present very little is known about the ecological and physiological interactions.
Light to Hide by: Ventral Luminescence to Camouflage the Silhouette
An experimental analysis of this luminescent system supports the hypothesis that it functions by emitting light during the daytime, which matches the background light and thereby obscures the silhouette of the animal.