Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is abundantly expressed in conceptuses and endometria during pregnancy in diverse animal models including domestic animals. However, its intracellular mechanism of action has not been reported for bovine endometrial cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify functional roles of FGF2 in bovine endometrial (BEND) cell line which has served as a good model system for investigating regulation of signal transduction following treatment with interferon-tau (IFNT) in vitro. Results of present study demonstrated that administration of FGF2 to BEND cells increased their proliferation and regulated the cell cycle through DNA replication by an increase of PCNA and Cyclin D1. FGF2 also increased phosphorylation of AKT, P70S6K, S6, ERK1/2, JNK, and P38 in BEND cells in a dose-dependent manner, and expression of each of those transcription factors was inhibited by their respective pharmacological inhibitor including Wormannin, U0126, and SP600125. In addition, the increase in proliferation of BEND cells and activation of the protein kinases in response to FGF2 was suppressed by BGJ398, a FGFR inhibitor. Furthermore, proliferation of BEND cells was inhibited by tunicamycin, but treatment of BEND cells with FGF2 restored proliferation of BEND cells. Consistent with this result, the stimulated unfolded protein response (UPR) regulatory proteins induced by tunicamycin were down-regulated by FGF2. Results of this study suggest that FGF2 promotes proliferation of BEND cells and likely enhances uterine capacity and maintenance of pregnancy by activating cell signaling via the PI3K and MAPK pathways and by restoring ER stress through the FGFR.