BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with hyperphosphatemia, decreased vitamin D metabolite concentrations, and hyperparathyroidism. This syndrome is known as CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Recently, it has been shown that an increase in fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) concentration is an early biomarker of CKD in people. It is an independent risk factor for both progression of renal disease and survival time in humans and cats with CKD. Information about FGF-23 in healthy dogs and those with CKD is lacking. OBJECTIVES To measure FGF-23 concentration in dogs with different stages of CKD and determine its association with factors involved in CKD-MBD, including serum phosphorus and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. A secondary aim was to validate an ELISA for measurement of plasma FGF-23 concentration in dogs. ANIMALS Thirty-two client-owned dogs with naturally occurring CKD and 10 healthy control dogs. METHODS Prospective cross-sectional study. An FGF-23 ELISA was used to measure plasma FGF-23 concentration in dogs and their association with serum creatinine, phosphorus, calcium, and PTH concentrations. RESULTS Plasma FGF-23 concentrations increased with severity of CKD and were significantly different between IRIS stages 1 and 2 versus stages 3 and 4 (P < .0001). Increases in FGF-23 concentrations were more frequent than hyperparathyroidism or hyperphosphatemia in this cohort. Serum creatinine and phosphorus concentrations were the strongest independent predictors of FGF-23 concentration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE Plasma FGF-23 concentrations increase in dogs with CKD as disease progresses. Plasma FGF-23 concentrations appear to be useful for further study of the pathophysiology of CKD-MBD in dogs.