Fiber-type-related differences in the enzymes of a proposed substrate cycle.

  title={Fiber-type-related differences in the enzymes of a proposed substrate cycle.},
  author={Richard A. Howlett and Wayne T. Willis},
  journal={Biochimica et biophysica acta},
  volume={1363 3},

Mitochondria in the middle: exercise preconditioning protection of striated muscle

New molecular mechanisms of protection, such as δ‐opioid receptor regulation and mitophagy, reinforce the notion that mitochondrial adaptations (e.g. heat shock proteins, antioxidant enzymes and sirtuin‐1/PGC‐1 signalling) are central to the protective effects of exercise preconditioning.

Evaluation by blue native polyacrylamide electrophoresis colorimetric staining of the effects of physical exercise on the activities of mitochondrial complexes in rat muscle.

The results demonstrate the possible and useful application of BN-PAGE-histochemical staining to physical exercise studies and the enzymatic characterization of mitochondrial complexes I and IV in rat muscles with different morphological and biochemical properties.

Exercise: Kinetic considerations for gas exchange.

This review provides a physiological systems perspective of pulmonary gas exchange kinetics from an integrative view on the control of muscle oxygen consumption kinetics to the dissociation of cellular respiration from its pulmonary expression by the circulatory dynamics and the gas capacitance of the lungs, blood, and tissues.

Effect of ractopamine-hydrochloride on the fiber type distribution and shelf-life of six muscles of steers.

Visual panel data suggest that RAC tended to have the most detrimental effect on the lean color and surface discoloration scores of steaks from the VL during the last 3 d of display, and subjective measurements indicate that it may have some effect on surface discoling of some muscles.

Effect of dietary zinc and ractopamine hydrochloride on pork chop muscle fiber type distribution, tenderness, and color characteristics.

RAC+ diets produced chops that were lighter and less red but maintained a greater percentage of surface oxymyoglobin throughout a 5-d simulated retail display, and supplementing Zn to RAC diets restored MRA to near CON treatment levels at the end of the display period.

Effects of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program on meat quality characteristics.

The alternative feeding strategies presented in this study can favorably impact water-holding capacity without negatively compromising retail display discoloration.


A meta-analysis was conducted using data from existing literature to generate equations to predict finishing pig back, belly, and jowl fat iodine value and the effects of added Zn on growth performance, pork quality, plasma Zn, and ileal mucosal inflammation mRNA expression of finishing pigs fed diets containing ractopamine-HCl.



Inducibility of NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase with endurance training in skeletal muscle.

The results indicate that ICDH-NADP is inducible with endurance training in locomotor skeletal Muscle following 8 weeks of treadmill endurance training.

The proton-translocating nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) transhydrogenase of rat liver mitochondria.

The isocitrate dehydrogenase of rat liver mitochondria was exclusively NADP-specific, and the oxoglutarate/isocitrates couple could therefore be used unequivocally as redox reactant for NADP in experiments designed to operate only the NAD(P) transhydrogenase (or loop 0) segment of the respiratory chain in intact mitochondria.

Physiological roles of nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase.

From the foregoing considerations, the energy-linked transhydrogenase reaction emerges as a powerful and flexible element in the network of redox and energy interrelationships that integrate

Impaired control of respiration in iron-deficient muscle mitochondria.

Signs of marked alterations in the pattern of muscle fiber recruitment during mild exercise in ID rodents are suggested and support the hypothesis that sensitivity of respiratory control in SMM is an important determinant of motor unit recruitment during aerobic exercise.

P/O ratios reassessed: Mitochondrial P/O ratios consistently exceed 1.5 with succinate and 2.5 with NAD‐linked substrates

Results, although not excluding “nonintegral” P/O ratios due to various energy‐dissipating side reactions, warrant caution in accepting the reported lower values and, in general, in referring to mechanistic considerations unless the underlying molecular mechanisms are understood.