Fetal Valproate Syndrome

@article{Kulkarni2006FetalVS,
  title={Fetal Valproate Syndrome},
  author={M. L. Kulkarni and M. Zaheeruddin and Nivedita Shenoy and H. N. Vani},
  journal={The Indian Journal of Pediatrics},
  year={2006},
  volume={73},
  pages={937-939}
}
Fetal Valproate Syndrome results from prenatal exposure to valproic acid. It is characterized by distinctive facial appearance, a cluster of minor and major anomalies and central nervous system dysfunction. Here we report a 4-year-old boy with typical facial features of Fetal Valproate Syndrome. 
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References

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Fetal valproate syndrome: is there a recognisable phenotype?
TLDR
There is a distinctive 'fetal valproate' phenotype, and common facial features in the three surviving infants include epicanthic folds, a flat nasal bridge, a broad nasal base, anteverted nostrils, and a thin upper lip with a thick lower lip.
Fatal cardiac malformation in fetal valproate syndrome
A neonate with a fatal cardiac malformation due to maternal valproate intake during pregnancy is presented.
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TLDR
A consistent facial phenotype was observed in all seven children exposed to sodium valproate in utero in addition to other birth defects in four; Hypospadias, strabismus, and psychomotor delay were found in two males; two children had nystagmus and two had low birth weight.
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TLDR
The data from this comprehensive review especially the developmental outcome should be added to the teratogenic risk, that arises in association with the use of VPA during pregnancy.
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TLDR
No consistent alterations of pre- or postnatal growth with exposure to VPA monotherapy is found and the types of defects associated with maternal VPA use may be clarified when classified by pathogenetic mechanism.
Fetal valproate syndrome.
TLDR
There is an increased incidence of major and minor congenital abnormalities in infants born to epileptic mothers and although increasing doses are required during pregnancy to keep patients seizure free, it is generally accepted that the lowest dose at which the patient is seizure free should be used, even if this does not fall within the recommended therapeutic range.
Malformations, withdrawal manifestations, and hypoglycaemia after exposure to valproate in utero.
TLDR
An unselected series is presented of 17 infants born to epileptic mothers and exposed to sodium valproate during pregnancy that had manifestations of withdrawal, such as irritability, jitteriness, abnormalities of tone, seizures, and feeding problems.
Fetal Valproate Syndrome: Clinical and Neuro‐developmental Features in Two Sibling Pairs
TLDR
The clinical and neurodevelopmental features are presented of four children–two sibling pairs–who were exposed in utero to valproic acid who were globally developmentally delayed with marked speech disability, and had dysmorphic features consistent with fetal valproate syndrome.
Congenital abnormalities in two sibs exposed to valproic acid in utero.
TLDR
Many of the minor anomalies present in the2 affected patients resemble those observed in rhesus monkeys exposed to VPA in utero, which suggests that the abnormalities observed in the 2 children may have been a consequence of intrauterine exposure to Vpa.
Anomalous right pulmonary artery origins in association with the fetal valproate syndrome
TLDR
It is recommended that anomalous pulmonary artery origin is borne in mind in patients with valproate syndrome undergoing cardiac assessment, particularly as this may be a difficult diagnosis to make on echocardiography.
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