Fertility decline and gender bias in northern India.

  title={Fertility decline and gender bias in northern India.},
  author={P. N. Mari Bhat and A. J. Francis Zavier},
  volume={40 4},
Although it is widely acknowledged that the preference for sons is a barrier to a decline in fertility, considerable disagreement exists as to what actually happens to this preference when fertility declines in a region of low female autonomy. By analyzing the data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), we present evidence from northern India to show that the preference for sons is reduced when the ideal family size becomes small, even though it does not completely disappear. This… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Son preference and the fertility squeeze in India
Abstract India's sex ratio at birth (SRB) has become increasingly masculine, coinciding with a declining total fertility rate. Couples often resort to sex-selective abortion or even infanticide to
Child Underreporting, Fertility, and Sex Ratio
Child underreporting is often neglected in studies of fertility and sex ratio imbalance in China. To improve estimates of these measures, I use intercensal comparisons to identify a rise in
Child Underreporting, Fertility, and Sex Ratio Imbalance in China
A new triangulation of evidence indicates that about 19% of children at ages 0–4 were unreported in the 2000 census, more than double that of the 1990 census, and suggests that China’s fertility in the late 1990s (and perhaps beyond) was below officially adjusted levels.
An Increase in the Sex Ratio of Births to India‐born Mothers in England and Wales: Evidence for Sex‐Selective Abortion
It is found that male preference in different cultures does not necessarily lead to sex-selective abortion among mothers born in India and living in Britain, which is inconsistent with previous suggestions that Asian populations have a higher "natural" sex ratio at birth.
Fertility Decline and Missing Women
India's male-biased sex ratio has worsened over the past several decades. In combination with the increased availability of prenatal sex-diagnostic technology, the declining fertility rate is a
Disappearing Daughters and Intensification of Gender Bias: Evidence from Two Village Studies in South India ∗
Why are female children still at risk in India despite progress in education, increasing participation of women in economic and political activities, and an overall improvement in the status of
‘Missing girls’ in China and India: trends and policy challenges
ABSTRACT Child sex ratios plateaued in China between the censuses of 2000 and 2010, a major change from decades of sharp rises. In India they rose by 1.4 per cent during the intercensal period
The Implementation of Preferences for Male Offspring
Over the past quarter century the sex ratio at birth (SRB) has risen above natural levels in a number of countries, mostly in Asia. This rise has been made possible in populations with strong son
The Fertility-Sex Ratio Trade-Off: Unintended Consequences of Financial Incentives
Lower fertility can translate into a more male-biased sex ratio if son preference is persistent and technology for sex-selection is easily accessible. This paper investigates whether financial
Gender Bias in Sex Ratio at Birth: The Case of India
A deeply-rooted preference for sons may decrease the relative number of female births. Though there are variables that may help to erode the couple's preference for sons, these same variables may


Mortality fertility and gender bias in India: a district-level analysis.
The findings in this study are broadly consistent with findings of Kishor on the link between economic and cultural worth and female child survival. It is reported that prior literature is unclear
Female demographic disadvantage in India 1981-1991: sex selective abortions and female infanticide.
Any policy measures must not focus primarily on restricting technology used to womens detriment but also the root causes of devaluation of Indian women, suggests this review.
Gender preference contraceptive prevalence: evidence of regional variations.
It is shown that in states where gender preference is mild the contraceptive prevalence is not much depressed and the fertility impact is very small and on the other hand states with moderate gender preferences appear to make a large impact on contraceptive prevalence and consequently in fertility.
Fertility dimensions of patriarchy and development in India.
This study examines the relative importance of the marriage system the means of active discrimination against women and womens economic value in a patriarchal system in affecting the total fertility
Fertility, Education, and Development: Evidence from India
Fertility has declined significantly in many parts of India since the early 1980s. This article examines the determinants of fertility levels and fertility decline, using data on Indian districts for
On kinship structure, female autonomy, and demographic behavior in India.
The main states of India are broadly grouped into 2 demographic regimes. In contrast to states in the north southern states are characterized by lower marital fertility later age at marriage lower
Fertility as an Adjustment to Risk
A curious myopia characterizes recent research on the value of children and its relation to fertility levels and trends in rural areas of developing countries. By this I mean that disproportionate
Son Preference, the Family-building Process and Child Mortality in India
The analysis indicates that son preference fundamentally affects demographic behaviour in India and family composition affects fertility behaviour in every state examined and son preference is the predominant influence in all but one of these states.
The dynamics of the population sex ratio in India, 1971–96
This paper reconstructs the trend in the population sex ratio in India between 1971 and 1996 from available information on changes in sex differentials in mortality in the country since the beginning of the century and finds that this ratio is a bad proxy for use in the study of changes in differential mortality by sex.