# Fermions, strings, and gauge fields in lattice spin models

@article{Levin2003FermionsSA, title={Fermions, strings, and gauge fields in lattice spin models}, author={Michael Levin and Xiao-Gang Wen}, journal={Physical Review B}, year={2003}, volume={67}, pages={245316} }

We investigate the general properties of lattice spin models with emerging fermionic excitations. We argue that fermions always come in pairs and their creation operator always has a stringlike structure with the newly created particles appearing at the end points of the string. The physical implication of this structure is that the fermions always couple to a nontrivial gauge field. We present exactly soluble examples of this phenomenon in two and three dimensions. Our analysis is based on an…

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