Oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the development of type 1 diabetes and its complications. Because two compounds found in soy, that is, isoflavones and alpha-galactooligosaccharides, have been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, this study aimed to assess the effects of a dietary supplement containing these two active compounds, the fermented soy permeate (FSP). We hypothesized that FSP would be able to reduce in vivo oxidative stress and inflammation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into the control placebo, diabetic placebo, and diabetic FSP-supplemented groups. They received daily, by oral gavage, water (placebo groups) or diluted FSP (0.1 g/day; FSP-supplemented group). After 3 weeks, glycemic regulation (glycemia and fructosamine level); the plasma level of carboxymethyllysine (CML), a marker of systemic oxidative stress in diabetes; and the plasma levels of inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-1β, IL-6, and uric acid) were evaluated. Markers of oxidative damage (isoprostanes and GSH/GSSG), antioxidant enzymatic activity (SOD and GPX), and Mn-SOD content were determined in skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius). Diabetic placebo rats exhibited higher CML levels, lower SOD and GPX activities, and decreased Mn-SOD contents. FSP supplementation in diabetic animals normalized the CML and antioxidant enzymatic activity levels and tended to increase Mn-SOD expression. The markers of inflammation whose levels were increased in the diabetic placebo group were markedly decreased by FSP (IL-1β: -75%, IL-6: -46%, and uric acid: -17%), except for CRP. Our results demonstrate that FSP exhibited antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vivo in STZ-induced diabetic rats.