Feminizing genitoplasty: state of the art

  title={Feminizing genitoplasty: state of the art},
  author={Richard C. Rink and Mark C. Adams},
  journal={World Journal of Urology},
Abstract Surgical management of intersex states continues to evolve such that today's efforts achieve near normal cosmetic and functional results. In this article we discuss the reconstruction of the female genitalia in those that have had significant androgen stimulation as well as those with near normal external genitalia but significant urogenital sinus anomalies. The initial evaluation as well as postoperative follow-up management is addressed. 

Feminizing Genitoplasty in Patients with 46XX Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

It is believed that infants with 46XX CAH can undergo one-stage feminizing genitoplasty very early in life with satisfactory cosmetic and functional results.

[Reconstructive surgery of the clitoris after sexual mutilation].

Timing and Outcome Concerns regarding Feminizing Genitoplasty from the Perspective of Egyptian Families of Girls with Virilized External Genitalia

Comprehensive psychosocial support within a multidisciplinary approach is needed to defer feminizing genitoplasty in selected cases to adolescence in Egyptian girls with virilization due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Anatomical and functional outcomes of feminizing genitoplasty for ambiguous genitalia in patients with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

It is concluded that single-stage feminizing genitoplasty consisting of vulvoplasty, clitoroplasty and Y-V perineal flap produced good cosmetic and functional results in virilized girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, with few complications.

Long‐term functional outcomes of female genital reconstruction in childhood

There are two very interesting paediatric urology papers; in the first, authors from London describe the long‐term functional outcomes of female genital reconstruction in childhood, and in the

Disorders of Sexual Development: Surgical Management

It is felt strongly that the parent should know of all pros and cons of both having surgery and not having surgery, and the parents should also be an integral part of the gender assignment team and participate in all decisions.

Complete corporeal preservation clitoroplasty: new insights into feminizing genitoplasty

CCPC stands as a new alternative for feminizing genitoplasty with complete preservation of erectile tissue and no dissection of neurovascular bundle, and represents a new step in conservative reconfiguration of the external virilized female genitalia.

Intersex surgery in the adult

The study of individuals born with ambiguous genitalia is undergoing a revolution; in the past the birth of such a baby was regarded as a medical emergency and most children were never told of their original diagnosis.

Timing of surgery for feminizing genitoplasty in patients suffering from congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

The operation to feminize the genitalia includes the creation of a functionally wide enough vagina, the remodeling of the labioscrotal folds to create larger labia, and, if necessary, a reduction clitoroplasty.



Repair of the high vagina in girls with severely masculinized anatomy from the adrenogenital syndrome.

Single-stage feminization genitoplasty.

Abdominoperitoneal approach to management of the high, short vagina in the adrenogenital syndrome.

Neonatal management of female intersex by clitorovaginoplasty.

Bilateral rotated buttock flaps for vaginal atresia in severely masculinized females with adrenogenital syndrome.

The addition of large bilateral rotated buttock flaps to the flap vaginoplasty enhances the introitus in severely masculinized patients with high vaginal atresia and will result in a vaginal reconstruction free of unwanted hair in later life.

Urogenital sinus and cloacal malformations.

Urogenital sinus and cloacal malformations comprise a wide spectrum of abnormal anatomy. This article discusses lessons learned from treating these anomalies for 4 decades. Once the outlook was dim